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    Arrow Kerala - Model

    Kerala is the Role Model for all other states of India. Comment on it

    Frequently asked question even in theory and viva.


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    come on guys...comment briefly on it..it's dam easy..someone from kerala itself can comment..

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    Thumbs up Some Comments..!!

    Kerala Is UNIQUE in Following maters In INDIA...This plays Important Role and Not only India but some other countries also can learn from it...

    Kerala has drawn considerable attention in recent years for its paradoxical pattern of growth with high social development indicators on a weak economic base, often referred to as the ‘Kerala model of development’.


    FAMILY STRUCTURE, WOMEN'S EDUCATION AND WORK
    Literacy, together with non-domestic employment, which gave women access to independent sources of income, have been regarded as important indicators of women’s ‘status’, which affected fertility and mortality outcomes.
    Since women in Kerala have on average, been the most literate when compared with women in other states of India (though the same could not be said of female work-participation rates), much has been written about their ‘high status’ and their central role, historically, in social development.
    However, there is a growing uneasiness with Kerala’s social development outcomes linked to non conventional indicators as in the rising visibility of gender based violence, mental illhealth among women, and the rapid growth and spread of dowry and related crimes.
    With socio-cultural institutions such as families, which mediate micro level decisions regarding education, health or employment, could reveal the continuities rather than disjunctures between conventional social development outcomes and non conventional indicators of ill health and violence.
    Changes in the structure and practices of families in Kerala in the past century have had wide-ranging implications for gender relations. Alterations in marriage, inheritance and succession practices have changed dramatically the practices of erstwhile matrilineal groups as well as weakened women’s access to and control over inherited resources.

    Alongside, women’s education and employment have not played the transformative role so generally expected of them. Changing levels of female employment and the persistence of a gendered work structure have limited women’s claims to “self-acquired” or independent sources of wealth. Underlying these changes are conceptions of masculinity and femininity, which privilege the male working subject and female domesticity.




    POPULATION PROJECTION AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS FOR EDUCATION:

    In the context of high levels of public expenditure, already committed to the educational sector in States like Kerala, it is argued that there should be restrictions on further investment. Such arguments are apparently supported by the fact that the birth rate is declining and therefore it will result in lesser number of school age population.
    Since this trend directly affect the elementary education sector-the most sensitive- it is important to project the school age populations with realistic assumptions. This study uses the recent information on the trends in fertility and reproductive preferences to make a realistic future assumption on fertility.
    Since the total fertility rate (TFR) is distorted by the changes in the timing of child bearing, the initial level of TFR was adjusted in the projection assumption. Among the three assumptions used (high, medium and low) the medium variant shows that the fall in schoolgoing age population will be around 3.29 lakhs between 1991 and 2001.
    However, there will be an increase in the school age population of around 2.37 lakhs between 2001 and 2006 and 1.54 lakhs between 2001 and 2011. Therefore, the fruits of fertility decline will be realized fully after the year 2011 only.
    In that context, built up school space should not be diverted for use outside schooling purposes; but should be used within the same sector for qualitative upgradation. Decelerating birth rate and its expected impact upon primary school enrolment, by itself cannot be considered as cause enough to withdraw public investment.

    Such overall impact will hide within it, level-wise changes of demand for education, from lower to higher school classes, particularly within the relatively educationally 'backward' districts and communities. Therefore, the decelerating birth rate should be carefully monitored. Taking into account its trend and location, further public investment should be reoriented and rationalized. To close schools purely on the basis of decelerating demographic trends will be counterproductive to the nationally and internationally accepted objective of education for all.




    ‘Welfare Funds’ for informal sector workers in the State of Kerala in India

    The Kerala experience, which is now thirty years old, reflects what the workers in the informal sector could achieve in countries like India given the contemporary political context and the democratic political framework of the State. But it required sustained collective action on the part of the workers.

    while the Welfare Fund Model of collective care arrangements for the informal sector workers in Kerala showed considerable innovation in its design and organisation, its functioning is embedded in the bureaucratic system giving rise to a number of problems. Even then the Model offers a minimum of social security to the informal sector workers who are unprotected. Therefore the question of replicating this Model with suitable modifications to other States in India as well as to other countries, where there are no social security arrangements for informal sector workers, is worth pursuing.




    FAMILY PLANNING AS ‘LIBERATION’: THE AMBIGUITIES OF ‘EMANCIPATION FROM BIOLOGY’ IN KERALAM

    In the early debates on the desirability of artificial birth control in Malayalee society, artificial birth control was often opposed on the grounds that it undercut some of the crucial conditions for the ushering in of full-fledged modernity, which was frequently conceived of in entirely Developmentalist terms. The concern expressed was mainly that it was incompatible with the project of modern self-building, tied as it was to the attainment of a high degree of sexual self- control.
    However, by the 1960s, such fears had vanished or become marginal, and now the reverse appeared true, i.e., Family Planning appeared to be part and parcel of disciplined, abstemious and prudent domesticity.
    Some of the conditions that made this transformation possible had been already taking shape before the full-scale arrival of the Family Planning Programme into Keralam. These included changes in key notions like the nature and social function of sexual desire and activity, modern conjugal marriage and the forces sustaining it, and so on.

    The Family Planning propaganda of mid 20th century was bolstered, directly or indirectly, by these ongoing elaborations. Also important was the Family Planning propaganda’s active furthering of the emergent forms of power in modern Malayalee society that were already defining and guiding its modernisation, such as the newer form of patriarchy in which (modern educated) men design and oversee the process of ‘Women’s Liberation’, the new elitism of modern knowledge that marginalises all other ways of knowing and sharply differentiates ‘mental’ work and ‘physical’ labour, the passivising power of reformism which authorises non- reciprocal relations between the reformers and the objects of reform.



    POLITICAL ECONOMY OF LABOUR AND DEVELOPMENT IN KERALA
    Kerala is well-known for its achievements in the sphere of social development that includes a rapid and high level mobilisation and organisation of workers regardless of location and sectoral occupation. However such a process of social development without a commensurate transformation of the productive sectors has presented Kerala with some
    major dilemmas.
    The three dilemmmas relate to
    (i) technological choice in the face of high and rising labour costs in labour-intensive activities for maximising long-term growth and employment,
    (ii) mismatch between labour-supply and labour demand as a result of changing job expectations of the younger generation in a technologically stagnant economy, and
    (iii) lack of new investment despite growing loanable funds and declining resistance to technological change.

    The failure of labour unions to agree to productivity improvements through technological changes and increasingly resorting to 'closed shop' strategies has been particularly emphasised. Perhaps this is negative point to discuss, but just to add in information..


    POVERTY AND YOUNG WOMEN’S EMPLOYMENT
    Specifically, the following questions were addressed, in the context of Kerala:
    1.Which young women work for pay and why?
    2.To what extent is a woman’s household economic status -- especially poverty status -- an important determinant of employment, and
    3.Yo what degree does this relationship differ for married and single women?

    Data for this study come from a 1997 survey of 530 women aged 18 to 35 in Trivandrum district of Kerala. The analysis provides strong evidence for a U-shaped relationship between household economic status (or class status) and women’s current employment status. This is true for the entire sample and for the married women.

    However, in case of single women, poverty increases the likelihood of paid employment without significant effect at the upper end of the class spectrum. The interplay of economic factors (in terms of household needs and aspirations) and cultural factors (in terms of women’s position in the family as unmarried daughters as opposed to wives or daughters-in-law) as determinants of women’s employment is important both on the supply side of the labour market and women’s ability to obtain employment in an imperfect and almost saturated labour market in the context of Kerala.




    I will be adding more later on...I know It is not more precise yet...I will make it later on..or uptill that, Wait for someone to read it, understand it and post it more precise.....
    Last edited by dhaval; 01-16-2008 at 12:29 PM. Reason: to add on further..
    Thank you GOD

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    Quote Originally Posted by vitrag24 View Post
    come on guys...comment briefly on it..it's dam easy..someone from kerala itself can comment..

    Growth has only one BRIEF EXPLAINATION and that is DEDICATION..So they have dedicated and now we are seeing results..You may find this toooooo long or sometimes boring also..but just go through the highlighted part..you will find all Points to Ponder...

    This is my little try VITRAG..Other people continue commenting please....
    Last edited by dhaval; 01-18-2008 at 08:00 PM.
    Thank you GOD

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    Also foreign revenue.... tourism/ lots malayalees go abroad however invest in kerala. Though there are hardly any huge industries a huge portion of their money comes from such sources..
    KNOWLEDGE SHOULD BE FREE

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    hmm..nice info dhaval..but difficult to remember in this language...have to modify them in simple language..

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