Renal papillary necrosis occurs in association with the following conditions:

* Use of analgesics
* Diabetes mellitus (DM) with infection (no increase in incidence occurs in patients with uncomplicated DM)
* Urinary tract infection
* Urinary tract obstruction
* Hemoglobinopathies, such as sickle cell disease
* Prolonged hypotension
* Renal vein thrombosis
* Congestive heart failure
* Cirrhosis
* Hemophilia
* Christmas disease
* Pediatric gastroenteritis (infants)
* Severe neonatal jaundice
* Severe dehydration
* Acidosis and respiratory distress