1 damage to what structure might produce hair cell loss? Organ of Corti
2 physiological changes seen in people living at high altitude ↑mito density, pulm vasoconstriction, ↑EPO, ↑renal bicarb excretion
3 bright reddish-pink acellular area around the graffian follicle zona pellucida
4 in a dehydrated patient, what part of the tubular system of the kidney has the lowest tubular fluid Osm? early distal tubule
5 increased peripheral resistance would occur from stimulating which type of neuron? sympathetic adrenergic
6 sweat glands are innervated by … sympathetic cholinergic neurons
7 CO x TPR = ? mean BP (approximately; exactly = mean systemic pressure - RA pressure)
8 TPR = ? (mean systemic pressure - RA pressure)/CO
9 on a P-V diagram, stroke work is found by …. area of the rectangle
10 on a P-V diagram, stroke volume is found by … EDV-ESV
11 major mechanism for controlling extracellular sodium concentration (Osm) ADH
12 major mechanism to retain sodium (do not affect Osm) Angiotensin-aldosterone system (keep Na and water both in, so no effect on Osm)
13 cytoplasmic and nuclear blebbing are features of … apoptosis
14 equation to find renal clearance of any substance CL = (Conc urine)(Vol urine)/(Conc plasma)
15 fenestrated epithelia are a feature of which organ? liver
16 type of pituitary cell that secretes growth hormone somatotrophs
17 inhibitor of growth hormone release somatostatin
18 ADH is released in response to … increased plasma osmolarity
19 three phases of spermatogenesis spermatocytogenesis, meiosis, and spermiogenesis
20 which is more acidic: venous or arterial blood? venous
21 indicator used to assess extracellular space inulin
22 interstitial volume + plasma volume = ? extracellular volume (inulin space)
23 indicator used to assess plasma volume (125)I-albumin (umm … yes, albumin stays in the plasma)
24 heavy water is used to assess… total body water (umm… yes, water distributes throughout the body)
25 decreased blood flow causes the release of ____ from the JGA renin
26 oocytes arrest in what phase of differentiation for most of a woman's life? prophase of meiosis I
27 tubular fluid with the lowest osm is found in the … macula densa (border between TAL and DCT)
28 name some things that increase the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen decreased Co2, decreased 2,3-DPG, decreased body temp
29 what causes the "a" wave on jugular venous tracing? RA contraction
30 what causes the "c" wave on jugular venous tracing? RV contraction (tricuspid valve bulges into atrium)
31 what causes the "v" wave on jugular venous tracing? increased atrial pressure due to filling against closed tricuspid valve (diastole)
32 mannose-6-phosphate is added to proteins in what organelle? Golgi apparatus
33 Giemsa stain is used to identify what type of cell? mast cells
34 lung volume associated with a + airway pressure total lung capacity
35 a brush border exists on which part of the kidney? proximal tubule
36 which hormone induces the change from proliferative to secretory endometrium? progesterone
37 what CV change occurs when one stands from a supine position? increased HR
38 fainting and blurred vision in hyperventilation is due to … reduced cerebral blood flow (decreased pCO2)
39 role of vWF in clot formation binds exposed collagen to circulating platelets
40 reduction in sodium intake will cause renin to …. increase
41 Mullerian Inhibitory Factor is secreted by … Sertoli cells (male genotype)
42 what activates 1-alpha-hydroxylase in the kidney? PTH
43 this part of the esophagus has both smooth and striated mm middle third (upper is entirely skeletal, lower is entirely smooth)
44 what type of mm is the UES? cricopharyngeus is skeletal
45 what type of mm is the LES? smooth mm
46 name the products of acidophils from the pituitary GH and prolactin
47 name the products of basophils from the pituitary LH, FSH, ACTH, TSH
48 type of epithelium contained in the distal esophagus nonkeratinized stratified squamous
49 eggs are arrested in ___ until ovulation diplotene stage of meiosis I
50 the largest drop in BP occurs on the course of what type of vessel? arteriole
51 what hormone is secreted in response to ingested (not infused) glucose and increases the output of insulin from the pancreas? gastric inhibitory peptide
52 part of the placenta derived from mom lacunar network
53 parts of the placenta derived from baby chorion (cytotrophoblast, syncytiotrophoblast) and primary villus
54 why does massive damage occur when cartilege is infected? it is avascular, so the blood components to fight the infection cannot get to the site
55 what does isometric mean? muscle contraction without change in length
56 what does isotonic mean? muscle contraction without change in tension (change in length occurs
57 range of blood pH in a neonate of a few minutes 7.11-7.36 (note difference in adults!)
58 range of PO2 in a neonate of a few minutes 8-24 mmHg (really low!)
59 range of pCO2 in a neonate of a few minutes 27-40 mmHg
60 if creation of CO2 remains constant, but ventilation increases by 4-fold, pCO2 … decreases by 4-fold
61 peripheral nerve axons are wrapped in … Schwann cells
62 the nuceli of spinal nerves are located in …. CNS
63 most of the water reabsorbed by the kidney is reabsorbed in which part? proximal tubule
64 If ADH is really, really high, where is most of the water filtered by the kidney reabsorbed? proximal tubule
65 what covers most microvilli in vivo? glycocalyx
66 trichrome stain is used for … fibrous tissue from nn and mm
67 how does testosterone hang out in the blood? bound to steroid-binding globulins
68 what are implantation receptors? expressed by a fertilized egg in preparation for implantation into the uterus
69 "the acrosome reaction" involves … the egg's zona pellucida and the sperm's acrosome
70 TLC-RV = ? FVC
71 what hormone maintains the corpus luteum during the first trimester of pregnancy? hCG
72 name the evolutionary stages of a sperm from spermatogonia to spermatozoa sprematogonia (2N) > primary spermatocyte (4N) > secondary spermatocyte (2N) > spermatid (1N) > (spermiogenesis) > spermatozoa (1N)
73 what happens to vascular resistance in exercising mm? decreases (allows more blood flow)
74 the structure limiting the filling of the ventricles fibrous pericardium
75 the vast majority of coronary aa blood flow occurs during … phase 1, or ventricular filling phase of diastole
76 is T3 converted peripherally to T4? nonkeratinized stratified squamous
77 what is the A band of the sarcomere? region containing the length of the myosin fibers
78 theca cells are stimulated by (LH/FSH) and secrete … LH, androgens
79 granulosa cells secrete … estrogens (take the androgens produced by the theca cells and aromatize them)
80 granulosa cells are stimulated by (FSH/LH) FSH (stimulates aromatase) AND LH
81 what is the effect of LH on the theca and granulosa cells? both secrete more progesterone
82 most blood volume is contained in which vessels? venules and veins
83 under optimal conditions, nerves can grow at a rate of … 1mm/day
84 labile cells are also known as …. continuously dividing cells
85 stable cells are also known as … quiescent cells
86 secondary lysosomes are found in which three cell types? macrophages, fibroblasts, and epithelium
87 smooth muscle cells are found in what part of an arteriole? media
88 elastin fibers are foun in the … (3) aorta, vocal cords, and ligamentum flavum (connecting the vertebrae)
89 hormone secreted by the intestine in the fasting state; causes hunger pains motilin
90 an increase in firing rate of afferent CN X fibers indicates … increased blood pressure (aortic arch baroreceptors)
91 where on the sarcomere are gap junctions found? intercalated disks
92 name the changes an infusion of 3L of blood following an MVA would cause in CO, SV, TPR, and RA pressure increased CO/SV/RA pressure, decreased TPR due to baroreceptor reflex
93 how the kidney deals with inulin freely filtered but not secreted or reabsorbed
94 CL(inulin) = ? GFR
95 how the kidney deals with PAH freely filtered and secreted
96 CL(PAH) = ? ERPF (underestimated by 10%)
97 treatment of an Ig with pepsin yields… (Fab)2 fragment and Fc fragment; can still precipitate its ligand
98 as cross-sectional area increases in the lung, air velocity … decreases
99 in order for an egg to complete meiosis II, what must occur? fertilization
100 abrupt decline in progesterone levels during the first trimester will result in … inability to maintain the endometrium and expulsion of the fetus
101 progesterone secretion is stimulated by ___ during the first trimester hCG
102 treatment with papain of an Ig results in … 2 Fab fragments and an Fc fragment
103 histologically, fibers of the AV node look like … cardiac muscle fibers
104 the slowest conduction in the heart occurs through the … AV node
105 the fastest conduction in the heart occurs through the … Purkinje fibers
106 what is the most important factor in matching R ventricular output to L vent output? length-tension relationship of cardiac mm
107 oxygen consumption by the heart is closely correlated with … CO x aortic pressure (or work)
108 lipoprotein lipase binds to and utilizes … chylomicrons
109 the afferent arm of the baroreceptor reflex responds to … vessel stretch
110 plasma insulin concentration is (high/low) during the third trimester of pregnancy high
111 an infusion of 1 L of what type of solution would produce a large increase in interstitial fluid volume? isotonic saline (no colloid osmotic pressure)
112 increasing HR will not increase CO unless ___ also increases venous return
113 what is capacitation? process that modifies the sperm cell membrane so that the acrosomal reaction can occur (happens in the uterus)
114 the organ with the lowest A-V O2 difference kidneys
115 describe the female hormones just prior to menstruation decreasing sex steroids, increasing LH/FSH, falling body temperature
116 describe the female hormones just prior to ovulation LH/FSH/estrogen falling, progesterone climbing
117 what hormone causes the increase in basal body temperature after ovulation? progesterone
118 during the secretory phase, where does the progesterone come from? corpus luteum
119 hCG acts like ___ during the first trimester of pregnancy LH
120 inulin space is equivalent to … extracellular volume
121 IGF-1 is secreted by ___ in response to ___ hepatocytes, GH in the blood
122 when a supine patient stands, what happens to HR? increases
123 calcium deposition in the mitochondria indicates … the transition from reversible cell injury to irreversible injury and death
124 which anterior pituitary cells stain with eosin? ones that secrete FSH, LH, ACTH, MSH (??)
125 multiple small cytoplasmic structures covering the outside of the glomerular lobes epithelial foot processes
126 at what place in the body does Cl leave the RBC? as the cell passes through the lungs
127 prednisone therapy would cause atrophy of which two portions of the adrenal? fasciculata and reticularis
128 acrosin helps sperm to … break through the zona pellucida of the egg
129 how to differentiate cardiac from skeletal mm cardiac mm for intercalated discs at junctions between cells
130 androstenedione that diffuses to the granulosa is converted to … estradiol
131 a normal FEV1/FVC ratio is seen in what type of lung disease? restrictive
132 mottled, irregular, blue structure in the perimuclear cytoplasm rough ER
133 two primary storage sites for histamine basophils and mast cells
134 on the 22nd of the month, what hormone is much elevated compared to Day 1? progesterone
135 when Ag binds to IgE on the surface of the basophil, what happens? release of histamine and heparin
136 the factor required for coagulation when injuries to the endothelium have occurred Factor VIII
137 the macrophages of the CNS microglia
138 which lung volume cannot be measured by spirometry? RV
139 aldosterone is produced in cell of the … (be specific) zona glomerulosa
140 how long does the body take to produce a sperm? around 2 months
141 what is the function of laminin? mediates attachment of epithelial cells to connective tissue
142 columnar epithelium with abundant cilia is seen in what part of the female GU tract? fallopian tube
143 describe the histology of a branch of the bile duct system small lumen surrounded by cuboidal epithelium w/ thin layer of smooth mm outside the epithelim
144 the difference between plasma and serum serum is plasma without clotting factors & fibrin
145 the first step in the formation of a thrombus platelet adhesion
146 what factor causes pulmonary vasoconstriction? low O2
147 epithelium with a brush border is located in what part of the kidney? proximal convoluted tubule
148 what kind of epithelium is found in the jejunum? nonciliated columnar
149 inulin space is equivalent to … extracellular fluid volume
150 which kidney aa lie between two capillary beds? efferent arterioles
151 PO2 of umbilical aa (>/</=) PO2 of mom's blood umbilical aa carries deoxygenated blood; PO2 of umbilical aa < mom's blood
152 hematocrit of mom (>/</=) hematocrit of full-term baby Hct mom = 32-34; Hct baby = 44
153 CHO contain ___ kCal/g 4
154 fats contain ___ kCal/g 9
155 proteins contain ___ kCal/g 4
156 peptide that produces vasodilation by the production of NO bradykinin
157 can histamine be inactivated by peptidases? no - its an aa
158 vomiting causes what acid-base disorder? metabolic alkalosis
159 failure to secrete MIF results in … phenotypic male with uterus and uterine tubes
160 describe the tonicity of fluid lost in diarrhea isotonic
161 describe autoregulation constant blood flow even when MAP changes
162 alveolar ventilation depends on three things: tidal volume, dead space, and frequency
163 the role of spectrin on the red cell membrane aids in deformability through caps
164 absence of receptive relaxation indicates a lesion of the … vagal innervation of the stomach