Vfib/Vtach drugs used according to ACLS
"Every Little Boy Must Pray":
Epinephrine
Lidocaine
Bretylium
Magsulfate
Procainamide

Shock: signs and symptoms
TV SPARC CUBE:
Thirst
Vomiting
Sweating
Pulse weak
Anxious
Respirations shallow/rapid
Cool
Cyanotic
Unconscious
BP low
Eyes blank


Acute LVF management
LMNOP:
Lasex (frusemide)
Morphine (diamorphine)
Nitrates
Oxygen (sit patient up)
Pulmonary ventilation (if doing badly)


Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) causes
BATS:
Berry aneurysm
Arteriovenous malformation/ Adult polycystic kidney disease
Trauma (eg being struck with baseball bat)
Stroke


Ventricular fibrillation: treatment
"Shock, Shock, Shock, Everybody Shock, Little Shock, Big Shock, Momma Shock, Poppa Shock":
Shock= Defibrillate
Everybody= Epinephine
Little= Lidocaine
Big= Bretylium
Momma= MgSO4
Poppa= Pocainamide


Chest pain treatment, for nurses
"MOVE your patient!":
Monitor: put patient on cardiac monitor
Oxygen: put patient on O2
Venous: gain large bore venous access
EKG: 12 lead EKG


Endotrachial tube deliverable drugs
O NAVEL:
Oxygen
Naloxone
Atropine
Ventolin (albuterol)
Epinephrine
Lidocaine
If you can't get IV access established, and have necessity to administer resuscitative meds, remember you have the airway and can give the above drugs.
Drug delivery is enhanced if diluted with 10cc NS and rapid introduced for aeresolization.
Alternatively, bare bone version is ALE, as above.


Syncope causes, by system
HEAD HEART VESSELS:
CNS causes include HEAD:
Hypoxia/ Hypoglycemia
Epilepsy
Anxiety
Dysfunctional brain stem (basivertebral TIA)
Cardiac causes are HEART:
Heart attack
Embolism (PE)
Aortic obstruction (IHSS, AS or myxoma)
Rhythm disturbance, ventricular
Tachycardia
Vascular causes are VESSELS:
Vasovagal
Ectopic (reminds one of hypovolemia)
Situational
Subclavian steal
ENT (glossopharyngeal neuralgia)
Low systemic vascular resistance (Addison's, diabetic vascular neuropathy)
Sensitive carotid sinus


Atrial fibrillation: causes of new onset
THE ATRIAL FIBS:
Thyroid
Hypothermia
Embolism (P.E.)
Alcohol
Trauma (cardiac contusion)
Recent surgery (post CABG)
Ischemia
Atrial enlargement
Lone or idiopathic
Fever, anemia, high-output states
Infarct
Bad valves (mitral stenosis)
Stimulants (cocaine, theo, amphet, caffeine)


Malaria: complications of falciparum malaria
CHAPLIN:
Cerebral malaria/ Coma
Hypoglycemia
Anaemia
Pulmonary edema
Lactic acidosis
Infections
Necrois of renal tubules (ATN)


MI: immediate treatment
DOGASH:
Diamorphine
Oxygen
GTN spray
Asprin 300mg
Streptokinase
Heparin


Pain history checklist
OLDER SAAB:
Onset
Location
Description (what does it feel like)
Exacerbating factors
Radiation
Severity
Associated symptoms
Alleviating factors
Before (ever experience this before)


Pulseless Electrical Activity (PEA): checklist
PEA:
Pulses check
Epinepherine
Atropine


PEA/Asystole (ACLS): etiology
ITCHPAD:
Infarction
Tension pneumothorax
Cardiac tamponade
Hypovolemia/ Hypothermia/ Hypo-, Hyperkalemia/ Hypomagnesmia/ Hypoxemia
Pulmonary embolism
Acidosis
Drug overdose


V-fib/pulseless v-tach (new ACLS as of 2001)
"EVAL My Pumper":
Epinephrine
Vasopressin
Amiodarone (class IIb--better for heart failure)
Lidocaine (indeterminate - better for young, healthy or persistent)
MgSO4 (IIb for hypomagnesemic state or torsades)
Procainamide (IIb for intermittent/recurrent VF/VT)


Asystole: treatment
"Have some asystole "TEA":
Transcutaneous pacing
Epi
Atropine


JVP: raised JVP differential
PQRST (EKG waves):
Pericardial effusion
Quantity of fluid raised (fluid over load)
Right heart failure
Superior vena caval obstruction
Tricuspid stenosis/ Tricuspid regurgitation/ Tamponade (cardiac)


JVP: raised JVP: extra-cardiac causes
FAT PEA:
Fever
Anaemia
Thyrotoxicosis
Pregnancy
Exercise
A-V fistula
These are in addition to all the cardiac ones (pericardial effusion, RHF, tricuspid stenosis, SVC obstruction, etc).


Shock: general features
CHORD ITEM:
Cold, clammy skin
Hypotension
Oliguria
Rapid, shallow breathing
Drowsiness, confusion
Irritability
Tachycardia
Elevated or reduced central venous pressure
Multi-organ damage


Myocardial infarction: some emergency treatment drugs
ABCD:
Aspirin
Beta blockers
Clot busters (thromboytics)
Dynamite (nitrates)