PHARM PNEUMONICS

Pulmonary infiltrations inducing drugs "Go BAN Me!
Gold
Bleomycin/ Busulphan/ BCNU
Amiodarone/ Acyclovir/ Azathioprine
Nitrofurantoin
Melphalan/ Methotrexate/ Methysergide

MPTP: mechanism, effect MPTP:
Mitochondrial Parkinson's-Type Poison.
A mitochondrial poison that elicits a Parkinson's-type effect.

Antimuscarinics: members, action
"Inhibits Parasympathetic And Sweat":
Ipratropium Pirenzepine Atropine Scopolamine
Muscarinic receptors at all parasympathetic endings sweat glands in sympathetic.

Teratogenic drugs: major non-antibiotics TAP CAP:
Thalidomide Androgens Progestins Corticosteroids Aspirin & indomethacin Phenytoin

Steroid side effects CUSHINGOID:
Cataracts
Ulcers
Skin: striae, thinning, bruising
Hypertension/ Hirsutism/ Hyperglycemia
Infections
Necrosis, avascular necrosis of the femoral head
Glycosuria
Osteoporosis, obesity
Immunosuppression
Diabetes


Beta blockers with CYP2D6 polymorphic metabolism
"I Met Tim Carver, the metabolic polymorph":
The following beta blockers require dose adjustment due to CYP2D6 polymorphic metabolism:
Metoprolol Timolol Carvedilol (in patients with lower or higher than normal CYP2D6 activity)


Beta blockers with intrinsic sympathomimetic activity
Picture diabetic and asthmatic kids riding away on a cart that rolls on pinwheels. Pindolol and Carteolol have high and moderate ISA respectively, making them acceptable for use in some diabetics or asthmatics despite the fact that they are non-seletive beta blockers.


Muscarinic effects SLUG BAM:
Salivation/ Secretions/ Sweating
Lacrimation
Urination
Gastrointestinal upset
Bradycardia/ Bronchoconstriction/ Bowel movement
Abdominal cramps/ Anorexia
Miosis


Sulfonamide: major side effects
Sulfonamide side effects:
Steven-Johnson syndrome
Skin rash
Solubility low (causes crystalluria)
Serum albumin displaced (causes newborn kernicterus and potentiation of other serum albumin-binders like warfarin)


Epilepsy types, drugs of choice:
"Military General Attacked Weary Fighters Pronouncing 'Veni Vedi Veci' After Crushing Enemies":
Epilepsy types: Myoclonic Grand mal Atonic West syndrome Focal Petit mal (absence)
Respective drugs: Valproate Valproate Valproate ACTH Carbamazepine Ethosuximide


Quinolones [and Fluoroquinolones]: mechanism
"Topple the Queen": Quinolone interferes with Topoisomerase II.


Beta blockers:
B1 selective vs. B1-B2 non-selective
A through N: B1 selective: Acebutalol, Atenolol, Esmolol, Metoprolol.
O through Z: B1, B2 non-selective: Pindolol, Propanalol, Timolol.


Ribavirin: indications RIBAvirin:
RSV
Influenza B
Arenaviruses (Lassa, Bolivian, etc.)
Hypertension: treatment ABCD:
ACE inhibitors/ AngII antagonists (sometimes Alpha agonists also) Beta blockers
Calcium antagonists
Diuretics

Narcotics: side effects "SCRAM if you see a drug dealer": Synergistic CNS depression with other drugs
Constipation
Respiratory depression
Addiction
Miosis
Sex hormone drugs: male "Feminine Males Need Testosterone":
Fluoxymesterone
Methyltestosterone
Nandrolone
Testosterone

Ca++ channel blockers: uses CA++ MASH:
Cerebral vasospasm/ CHF
Angina
Migranes
Atrial flutter, fibrillation
Supraventricular tachycardia
Hypertension
Alternatively: "CHASM":
Cererbral vasospasm / CHF
Hypertension
Angina
Suprventricular tachyarrhythmia
Migranes

Disulfiram-like reaction inducing drugs "PM PMT" as in Pre Medical Test in the PM:
Procarbazine
Metronidazole
Cefo (Perazone, Mandole, Tetan).

Delerium-causing drugs ACUTE CHANGE IN MS:
Antibiotics (biaxin, penicillin, ciprofloxacin)
Cardiac drugs (digoxin, lidocaine)
Urinary incontinence drugs (anticholinergics)
Theophylline
Ethanol
Corticosteroids
H2 blockers
Antiparkinsonian drugs
Narcotics (esp. mepridine)
Geriatric psychiatric drugs
ENT drugs
Insomnia drugs
NSAIDs (eg indomethacin, naproxin)
Muscle relaxants
Seizure medicines

Morphine: side-effects MORPHINE:
Myosis
Out of it (sedation)
Respiratory depression
Pneumonia (aspiration)
Hypotension
Infrequency (constipation, urinary retention)
Nausea
Emesis

Therapeutic dosage: toxicity values for most commonly monitored medications
"The magic 2s":
Digitalis (.5-1.5) Toxicity = 2.
Lithium (.6-1.2) Toxicity = 2.
Theophylline (10-20) Toxicity = 20.
Dilantin (10-20) Toxicity = 20.
APAP (1-30) Toxicity = 200.

Diuretics:
thiazides: indications "CHIC to use thiazides":
CHF
Hypertension
Insipidous
Calcium calculi

Migraine: prophylaxis drugs
"Very Volatile Pharmacotherapeutic Agents For Migraine Prophylaxis":
Verpamil
Valproic acid
Pizotifen
Amitriptyline
Flunarizine
Methysergide
Propranolol

Adrenoceptors: vasomotor function of alpha vs. beta
ABCD:
Alpha = Constrict.
Beta = Dilate.

Antiarrhythmics: classification
I to IV MBA College
In order of class I to IV:
Membrane stabilizers (class I)
Beta blockers
Action potential widening agents
Calcium channel blockers

Opiods: mu receptor effects "MD CARES":
Miosis
Dependency
Constipation
Analgesics
Respiratory depression
Euphoria
Sedation

Cancer drugs: time of action between DNA->mRNA ABCDEF: Alkylating agents
Bleomycin
Cisplastin
Dactinomycin/ Doxorubicin
Etoposide
Flutamide and other steroids or their antagonists (eg tamoxifen, leuprolide)

Busulfan: features ABCDEF:
Alkylating agent
Bone marrow suppression s/e
CML indication
Dark skin (hyperpigmentation) s/e
Endrocrine insufficiency (adrenal) s/e
Fibrosis (pulmonary) s/e

Tricyclic antidepressants: members worth knowing
"I have to hide, the CIA is after me":
Clomipramine Imipramine Amitrptyline
If want the next 3 worth knowing, the DNDis also after me:
Desipramine Norrtriptyline Doxepin

Torsades de Pointes: drugs causing APACHE:

Amiodarone Procainamide Arsenium Cisapride Haloperidol Eritromycin

Serotonin syndrome: components Causes HARM:
Hyperthermia Autonomic instability (delirium) Rigidity Myoclonus

Tetracycline: teratogenicity
TEtracycline is a TEratogen that causes staining of TEeth in the newborn.

Patent ductus arteriosus: treatment
"Come In and Close the door": INdomethacin is used to Close PDA.

Physostigmine vs. neostigmine LMNOP:
Lipid soluble
Miotic
Natural
Orally absorbed well
Physostigmine
Neostigmine, on the contrary, is:
Water soluble
Used in myesthenia gravis
Synthetic
Poor oral absorption

Beta 1 selective blockers
"BEAM ONE up, Scotty":
Beta 1 blockers:
Esmolol
Atenolol
Metropolol

Antirheumatic agents (disease modifying): members
CHAMP:
Cyclophosphamide
Hydroxycloroquine and choloroquinine
Auranofin and other gold compounds
Methotrexate
Penicillamine


Auranofin, aurothioglucose: category and indication
Aurum is latin for "gold" (gold's chemical symbol is Au).
Generic Aur- drugs (Auranofin, Aurothioglucose) are gold compounds.
If didn't learn yet that gold's indication is rheumatoid arthritis, AUR- Acts Upon Rheumatoid.

Antiarrhythmics: class III members BIAS:
Bretylium
Ibutilide
Amiodarone
Sotalol

MAOIs: indications MAOI'S:
Melancholic [classic name for atypical depression]
Anxiety
Obesity disorders [anorexia, bulemia]
Imagined illnesses [hypochondria]
Social phobias
Listed in decreasing order of importance.
Note MAOI is inside MelAnchOlIc.

SIADH-inducing drugs ABCD:
Analgesics: opioids, NSAIDs
Barbiturates
Cyclophosphamide/ Chlorpromazine/ Carbamazepine
Diuretic (thiazide)

K+ increasing agents K-BANK:
K-sparing diuretic
Beta blocker
ACEI
NSAID
K supplement


Reserpine action:
Reserpine depletes the Reserves of catecholamines [and serotonin].

Succinylcholine:
action, use Succinylcholine gets Stuck to Ach receptor, then Sucks ions in through open pore. You Suck stuff in through a mouth-tube, and drug is used for intubation.
Beta-blockers: side effects "BBC Loses Viewers In Rochedale": Bradycardia
Bronchoconstriction
Claudication
Lipids
Vivid dreams & nightmares
-ve Inotropic action
Reduced sensitivity to hypoglycaemia