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    Results 1 to 10 of 13

    Thread: MCQs : Organ System Pathology - Renal

    1. #1
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      Arrow MCQs : Organ System Pathology - Renal

      MCQs : Organ System Pathology - Renal


      Question 1

      A 50-year-old man has noted passing darker urine for the past week. On physical examination there are no abnormal findings. A urinalysis shows pH 5.5, specific gravity 1.013, 2+ blood, no protein, and no glucose. A urine cytology is performed and there are atypical uroepithelial cells seen. A urologist performs a cystoscopy, but no mucosal lesions are noted. He has a 60 pack year history of smoking cigarettes.

      Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?

      A Adenocarcinoma of prostate

      B Urothelial carcinoma of renal pelvis

      C Acute interstitial nephritis

      D Nodular glomerulosclerosis

      E Squamous cell carcinoma of penis

      [HIDE](B) CORRECT. The lack of findings in the bladder, but the presence of atypical cells, suggests that the lesion is located higher.[/HIDE]


      Question 2

      A 62-year-old man has had back pain for the past 8 months. He has had a productive cough for the past 2 days. On physical examination his temperature is 39 C and there is dullness to percussion at the right lung base. Laboratory studies show 4+ gram-positive diplococci in the sputum. A chest radiograph shows right lower lobe consolidation. An abdominal CT scan shows multiple lytic lesions of the vertebrae. On the day prior to death his serum urea nitrogen was 63 mg/dL with creatinine 7.1 mg/dL. A dipstick urinalysis was normal. At autopsy, his kidneys are firm and pale. Microscopically, there is abundant pink hyaline material in glomeruli and around small vessels. This material stains positively with Congo red.


      Which of the following laboratory findings was most likely to have been present in this patient in the week prior to death?

      A Positive antinuclear antibody test

      B Serum glucose of 210 mg/dL

      C CD4 lymphocyte count of 110/microliter

      D Total serum protein of 9.2 g/dL

      E Serum prostate specific antigen of 11.8 ng/mL

      [HIDE](D) CORRECT. The findings are consistent with renal amyloid deposition with multiple myeloma. The total protein is elevated from increased serum monoclonal immunoglobulin. Myeloma can produce lytic bone lesions and patients often develop infections with encapsulated bacteria. The excessive light chain production leads to amyloid deposition. Bence-Jones proteinuria is often present, but the dipstick is most sensitive for albumin, not globulins.[/HIDE]


      Question 3

      A 52-year-old previously healthy man has experienced episodes of discomfort with urination for 3 months. There are no remarkable findings on physical examination. Laboratory studies include a urinalysis that reveals sp. gr. 1.010, pH 7.5, no glucose, no protein, no ketones, and 1+ blood. Microscopic urine examination shows numerous RBCs, a few WBCs, and no casts. A urine culture is negative. A plain film radiograph of the pelvis shows a rounded, 1 cm radiopaque lesion in the region of the bladder.

      Which of the following laboratory test findings is most likely to be present in this man?

      A Proteinuria

      B Hypercalciuria

      C Elevated transaminases in serum

      D RBC casts in urine

      E Hyperuricemia

      [HIDE](B) CORRECT. The findings suggest a bladder calculus. Most stones are composed of calcium with oxalate or phosphate. The calcium content makes them radiopaque, unlike pure uric acid stones that are radiolucent and which are not very common.[/HIDE]


      Question 4

      A 72-year-old man has been feeling tired and lethargic for 5 months. He has noted increasing hesitancy with urination. On physical examination his prostate is diffusely enlarged. Laboratory studies show sodium 139 mmol/L, potassium 4.0 mmol/L, chloride 104 mmol/L, CO2 25 mmol/L, creatinine 1.9 mg/dL, and glucose 81 mg/dL.

      Which of the following renal abnormalities is most likely to be present in this man?

      A Cortical atrophy

      B Glomerulonephritis


      C Papillary necrosis

      D Polycystic change

      E Renal cell carcinoma

      [HIDE](A) CORRECT. The prostatic hyperplasia could lead to obstructive uropathy with hydronephrosis and eventual chronic renal failure.[/HIDE]


      Question 5

      A 35-year-old woman has experienced urinary frequency with dysuria for the past 4 days. On physical examination she has no flank pain or tenderness. A urinalysis reveals sp. gr. 1.014, pH 7.5, no glucose, no protein, no blood, nitrite positive, and many WBC's. She has a serum creatinine of 0.9 mg/dL.

      Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?

      A Lupus nephritis

      B Urinary tract lithiasis

      C Acute bacterial cystitis

      D Malakoplakia

      E Urothelial carcinoma

      [HIDE](C) CORRECT. These are features of acute inflammation. There are no casts, because the infection involves the bladder, though such an infection could ascend to produce pyelonephritis. Urinary tract infections are more common in women because of the shorter urethra.[/HIDE]

    2. #2
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      MCQs : Organ System Pathology - Renal



      Question 6

      A 70-year-old man incurs blunt force trauma in a fall. On physical examination he has a contusion on his lower back. An abdominal CT scan shows 3 peripheral 1 to 2 cm cysts in his kidneys. The kidneys are normal in size. Laboratory studies show a serum urea nitrogen of 16 mg/dL and creatinine of 1.1 mg/dL. A urinalysis reveals no blood, ketones, protein, or glucose. Microscopic urinalysis reveals a few oxalate crystals.

      Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?

      A Dominant polycystic kidney disease

      B Prostatic nodular hyperplasia

      C Renal artery atherosclerosis

      D Simple renal cysts in the cortex

      E Recurrent urinary tract infection

      [HIDE](D) CORRECT. Simple renal cysts typically do not interfere with renal function. A few small cysts can be found in many older persons and are inconsequential. They will appear as incidental findings in radiographic studies. [/HIDE]



      Question 7

      A clinical study is performed with pediatric subjects who had minimal change disease. These patients are observed to have prominent periorbital edema. Laboratory test findings from serum and urine tests are analyzed.

      Which of the following laboratory test findings is most likely to be consistently present in these subjects?.

      A Nitrite positive urinalysis specimen

      B Proteinuria >3.5 gm/24 hours

      C Hematuria with >10 RBC/hpf

      D Lipiduria in association with hypercholesterolemia

      E Renal tubular epithelial cells and casts

      [HIDE](B) CORRECT. This is the definition of nephrotic syndrome. A single urine specimen will not suffice for the definition of nephrotic syndrome (though it could be extrapolated, given the daunting task of 24 hour urine collection in children).[/HIDE]


      Question 8

      A 12-year-old boy is a member of a family with a history of renal disease, with males more severely affected than females. He is found to have auditory nerve deafness, corneal dystrophy, and ocular lens dislocation. A urinalysis shows microscopic hematuria. A renal biopsy is performed. Microscopically, the glomeruli show glomerular capillaries with irregular basement membrane thickening and attenuation with splitting of the lamina densa. The mesangial matrix is increased and epithelial cells may appear foamy.

      Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?

      A Goodpasture syndrome

      B IgA nephropathy

      C Alport syndrome

      D Dominant polycystic kidney disease

      E Diabetes mellitus, type I

      [HIDE](C) CORRECT. Hereditary nephritis (Alport syndrome) is not associated with immune complexes, but with a genetic defect of type IV collagen production. In most families, it is inherited in an X-linked dominant pattern. Symptoms usually appear at ages 5 to 20, with overt renal failure between ages 20 to 50[/HIDE].

      Question 9

      A clinical study is performed of laboratory findings in subjects with renal diseases. Loss of physiologic function accompanies many diseases.

      Loss of which of the following renal functions is most likely to be identified by laboratory measurement of the urine specific gravity?

      A Filtration

      B Reabsorption

      C Secretion

      D Concentration

      E Blood flow

      [HIDE](D) CORRECT. Renal concentrating ability is reflected by the specific gravity. In a person with normal concentrating capacity, less water intake is reflected by an increased specific gravity.[/HIDE]


      Question 10

      A 45-year-old woman has had increasing malaise for the past year. On physical examination her blood pressure is 265/150 mm Hg. Laboratory studies show a plasma renin activity of 9 ng/mL/hr. She then suffers a "stroke" with a right basal ganglia hemorrhage and dies. At autopsy the kidneys are bilaterally small with granular surfaces. Microscopically they show hyperplastic arteriolosclerosis with fibrinoid necrosis, petechial hemorrhages, and microinfarcts in the cortices.

      Which of the following conditions is most likely to be her underlying cause of death?

      A Diabetes mellitus, type II

      B Fibromuscular dysplasia

      C Factor V Leiden mutation

      D Analgesic abuse

      E Diffuse scleroderma

      [HIDE](E) CORRECT. She has findings of severe, malignant hypertension. This is likely to complicate diffuse scleroderma, but not the more limited form of scleroderma--CREST syndrome.
      [/HIDE]

    3. #3
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      MCQs : Organ System Pathology - Renal



      Question 11

      A 3-year-old child has become more irritable over the past two months and does not want to eat much at meals. On physical examination the pediatrician notes an enlarged abdomen and can palpate a mass on the right. An abdominal CT scan reveals a 10 cm solid mass involving the right kidney. The resected mass has a microscopic appearance with sheets of small blue cells along with primitive tubular structures. The child receives chemotherapy and radiation therapy, and there is no recurrence.

      Which of the following neoplasms is this child most likely to have had?

      A Angiomyolipoma

      B Renal cell carcinoma

      C Urothelial carcinoma

      D Wilms tumor

      E Medullary fibroma

      [HIDE](D) CORRECT. This is the classic age, histopathology, and location for Wilms tumor. These neoplasms, when treated properly, have a very good prognosis.[/HIDE]


      Question 12

      A 5-year-old boy is noted to have increased puffiness around his eyes for the past week, and he has been less active than normal. On physical examination he has periorbital edema. Vital signs include T 37 C, P 75/minute, RR 18/minute, and BP 140/90 mm Hg. A urinalysis reveals sp. gr. 1.010, pH 6.5, no glucose, 4+ protein, no blood, no casts, and no ketones. Microscopic urinalysis reveals oval fat bodies, but no WBC's or RBC's. He improves following a course of corticosteroid therapy.

      Which of the following renal lesions is most likely to have been present in this boy?

      A Glomerular crescents

      B Fusion of podocyte foot processes

      C Patchy tubular necrosis

      D Hyperplastic arteriolosclerosis

      E Mesangial immune complex deposition

      [HIDE](B) CORRECT. This is minimal change disease, the most common cause for nephrotic syndrome in children, and fusion of podocyte foot processes is the only pathologic finding present (on electron microscopy). Most patients respond to corticosteroid therapy.[/HIDE]


      Question 13

      A clinical study is performed involving subjects with glomerulonephritis. One group of subjects has a diagnosis of crescentic glomerulonephritis and another group has membranous glomerulonephritis.


      Which one of the following laboratory findings is most likely to be found in the absence of other findings in subjects with membranous glomerulonephritis?

      A Rapid onset

      B Red blood cell casts

      C Oliguria

      D Albuminuria

      E Hypertension

      [HIDE](D) CORRECT. Proteinuria may be present with nephritic syndromes (characterized by RBCs spilled into the urine from the glomeruli), but it is usually not marked, as in nephrotic syndrome. Membranous glomerulonephritis typically produces nephrotic syndrome, while membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis leads to a nephritic syndrome.[/HIDE]


      Question 14

      A 50-year-old man is hospitalized for acute myocardial infarction. He has decreased cardiac output with hypotension requiring multiple pressor agents. His urine output drops over the next 3 days. His serum urea nitrogen increases to 59 mg/dL, with creatinine of 2.9 mg/dL. Urinalysis reveals no protein or glucose, a trace blood, and numerous hyaline casts. Five days later, he develops polyuria and his serum urea nitrogen declines.

      Which of the following pathologic findings in his kidneys is most likely to have caused his azotemia?

      A Patchy tubular necrosis

      B Fusion of podocyte foot processes

      C Glomerular crescents

      D Hyperplastic arteriolosclerosis

      E Mesangial immune complex deposition

      [HIDE](A) CORRECT. He has findings of ischemic acute tubular necrosis from heart failure with hypotension. A clue is the >20:1 ratio of urea nitrogen to creatinine, which occurs early in the course, from prerenal azotemia. As the disease progresses, the ratio begins to approach 10:1, typical for renal diseases. ATN may also be produced by toxins such as ethylene glycol in antifreeze.[/HIDE]


      Question 15

      A clinical study is performed to determine the value of percutaneous renal biopsy. The medical records of subjects with renal diseases are analyzed to determine the circumstances in which the results of a renal biopsy facilitated determination of therapy that improved prognosis.

      In which of the following situations is a percutaneous needle biopsy of the kidney most useful?

      A Fever with suspected acute pyelonephritis

      B Prostatic hyperplasia with suspected hydronephrosis

      C Premature neonate with suspected polycystic kidney disease

      D Suspected renal cyst with abdominal pain

      E Systemic lupus erythematosus and acute renal failure

      [HIDE](E) CORRECT. Therapy may depend upon determination of the severity and nature of the renal disease with SLE.[/HIDE]

    4. #4
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      MCQs : Organ System Pathology - Renal

      Question 16

      A 55-year-old man complains of dull flank pain for the past month. On physical examination he has tenderness to percussion at the right costovertebral angle. Laboratory studies show microscopic hematuria but no proteinuria or glucosuria. A urine cytology shows no atypical cells. A CBC shows WBC count 7800/microliter, Hgb 21.1 g/dL, Hct 63.5%, MCV 94 fL, and platelet count 195,000/microliter. His serum urea nitrogen is 17 mg/dL and creatinine 1.2 mg/dL.

      Which of the following radiographic findings is most likely to be present in this man?

      A Hydronephrosis on intravenous pyelogram

      B Renal mass on abdominal CT scan

      C Radiopaque ureteral calculus on an abdominal plain film

      D Enlarged, multicystic kidneys on abdominal ultrasound

      E Pelvic mass below the bladder on MR imaging

      [HIDE](B) CORRECT. The polycythemia suggests a paraneoplastic syndrome, and a renal cell carcinoma is a likely candidate for the primary lesion. The flank pain and hematuria can be explained by a renal cell carcinoma.[/HIDE]


      Question 17
      A 43-year-old man goes to his physician for a routine check of his health status. He is found to have a blood pressure of 150/95 mm Hg. His urinalysis shows pH 6.5, specific gravity 1.015, no glucose, blood, or protein, and no casts. His serum creatinine is 1.4 mg/dL.

      If he is not treated, which of the following conditions will most likely cause his death?

      A Intracerebral hemorrhage (stroke)

      B Aortic aneurysm rupture

      C Congestive heart failure

      D Chronic renal failure

      E Intracranial aneurysm rupture

      [HIDE]NEXT QUESTION - - INDEX OF QUESTIONS - - EXAM MENU[/HIDE]


      Question 18

      A 20-year-old previously healthy man has been feeling tired for the past 5 days. He goes to his physician when he passes dark-colored urine. On physical examination his blood pressure is 155/90 mm Hg. Laboratory studies show his serum creatinine is 4.4 mg/dL. A urinalysis reveals pH 6, specific gravity 1.011, 3+ blood, 1+ protein, no glucose, and no ketones. On urine microscopic examination there are numerous RBC casts.

      Which of the following pathologic findings on renal biopsy is most likely to be present in this man?

      A Glomerular crescents

      B Widened proximal tubules

      C Polymorphonuclear infiltrates

      D Lipiduria

      E IgA deposited in glomerular capillaries

      [HIDE]NEXT QUESTION - - INDEX OF QUESTIONS - - EXAM MENU[/HIDE]


      Question 19

      A 43-year-old man has had increasing malaise for the past 3 weeks. On physical examination he has a blood pressure of 150/95 mm Hg and 1+ pitting edema of the lower extremities to the knees. Dipstick urinalysis shows no glucose, blood, ketones, nitrite, or urobilinogen, and the microscopic urinalysis reveals no RBC/hpf and only 1 WBC/hpf. Additional laboratory studies show a 24 hour urine protein of 4.1 gm. His serum creatinine is 2.2 mg/dL with urea nitrogen of 40 mg/dL. His hepatitis B surface antigen is positive.

      Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?

      A Membranous glomerulonephritis

      B Systemic lupus erythematosus

      C Acute tubular necrosis

      D Diabetic nephropathy

      E Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis

      [HIDE]NEXT QUESTION - - INDEX OF QUESTIONS - - EXAM MENU[/HIDE]

      Question 20

      A 60-year-old woman is admitted with sudden onset of chest pain and is diagnosed with an acute myocardial infarction. There is difficulty maintaining adequate blood pressure and tissue perfusion for 3 days. Her serum lactate becomes elevated. Her serum urea nitrogen and creatinine are noted to be increasing. Granular and hyaline casts are present on microscopic urinalysis.

      Which of the following renal lesions is most likely to be present in this situation?

      A Chronic pyelonephritis

      B Acute tubular necrosis

      C Nodular glomerulosclerosis

      D Renal vein thrombosis

      E Minimal change disease

      [HIDE](B) CORRECT. Ischemia, typically in hypotensive hospitalized patients, is the most frequent antecedent to ATN, and MI's are common.[/HIDE]

    5. #5
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      MCQs : Organ System Pathology - Renal


      Question 21

      A 50-year-old man was diagnosed at age 15 with type 1 diabetes mellitus. His disease has been poorly controlled, as evidenced by elevated hemoglobin A1C levels. He develops a non-healing ulcer of his foot at age 35. At age 45, he has an increasing serum urea nitrogen and a urinalysis shows sp gr 1.012, pH 6.5, 1+ protein, no blood, 1+ glucose, negative leukocyte esterase, negative nitrite, and no ketones.

      Which of the following renal diseases is he most likely to have?

      A Nodular glomerulosclerosis

      B Hyperplastic arteriolosclerosis

      C Papillary necrosis

      D Crescentic glomerulonephritis

      E Pyelonephritis

      [HIDE](A) CORRECT. This is a typical complication of long-standing diabetes mellitus. Microalbuminuria may preceed development of other abnormalities.[/HIDE]


      Question 22

      A 39-year-old woman is found to have a blood pressure of 160/105 mm Hg while at a free health screening clinic. She feels fine and has had no major medical problems in her life. An abdominal ultrasound reveals that the left kidney is smaller than the right, but that neither is cystic and no masses appear to be present. MR angiography reveals focal narrowing with thickening and beading of the left main renal artery. A urinalysis reveals no abnormal findings. She has an elevated plasma renin.

      Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?

      A Diabetes mellitus

      B Antiphospholipid syndrome

      C Fibromuscular dysplasia

      D Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura

      E Cholesterol emboli syndrome

      [HIDE](C) CORRECT. Fibromuscular dysplasia is an uncommon but surgically treatable cause for hypertension. The abnormal segment of artery can be treated with angioplasty or removed and replaced with a graft.[/HIDE]


      Question 23

      A 70-year-old woman has had a fever for the past 3 days. She has burning dysuria. On physical examination her temperature is 37.8 C and there is dull pain on palpation of her left lower back. Laboratory studies show Hgb 13.3 g/dL, Hct 40.2%, MCV 86 fL, platelets 222,000/microliter, and WBC count 12,300/microliter with differential count 72 segs, 9 bands, 13 lymphs, 5 monos, and 1 eosinophil. A urine dipstick analysis shows sp gr. 1.017, pH 6, leukocyte esterase positive, nitrite positive, protein negative, glucose negative, and blood negative.

      Which of the following microscopic urinalysis findings would be most diagnostic for her renal disease?

      A Broad renal casts

      B Oval fat bodies

      C Renal tubular epithelial cells

      D White blood cell casts

      E Triple phosphate crystals

      [HIDE](D) CORRECT. The WBC casts are most characteristic for an acute interstitital nephritis (acute pyelonephritis).[/HIDE]


      Question 24

      A 53-year-old woman has had chronic arthritis pain for the past 3 years. She has taken 2 gm of phenacetin a day for her pain over that time. She now has increasing fatigue. There are no abnormal findings on physical examination. Laboratory studies show her serum urea nitrogen is 52 mg/dL and creatinine 5.4 mg/dL.

      Which of the following pathologic findings is most likely present in her kidneys?

      A Papillary necrosis

      B Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

      C Nephrocalcinosis

      D Acute interstitial nephritis

      E Arteriolosclerosis

      [HIDE](A) CORRECT. She has analgesic abuse nephropathy which leads to papillary necrosis and tubular atrophy (though the renal columns are spared).[/HIDE]


      Question 25

      A 25-year-old woman has been hospitalized for treatment of a Staphylococcus aureus abscess of her left thigh complicating a puncture wound. The wound is incised and drained and she receives antibiotic therapy. She is improving and discharged home a week later, but the next day she develops a fever. On physical examination her temperature is 38.1 C and there is a diffuse erythematous skin rash of her trunk and extremities. A urinalysis shows sp gr 1.020, pH 6.5, 1+ blood, 1+ protein, no glucose, and no ketones. There are 10-20 WBCs/hpf and 1-5 RBCs/hpf, and a few eosinophils are noted on urine microscopic examination.

      Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?

      A Acute tubular necrosis

      B Analgesic abuse nephropathy

      C Drug-induced interstitial nephritis

      D Hemolytic-uremic syndrome

      E Post-infectious glomerulonephritis

      F Urinary tract infection

      [HIDE](C) CORRECT. This allergic response can occur following drug therapy with such antibiotic agents as methicillin, as well as some diuretics and NSAIDs. This allergic response is unrelated to the amount of drug and duration of therapy. This condition is treated by stopping the drug.[/HIDE]
      Last edited by trimurtulu; 03-19-2009 at 07:15 AM.

    6. #6
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      MCQs : Organ System Pathology - Renal


      Question 26

      A 40-year-old previously healthy man has the sudden onset of severe right flank pain that comes in waves all night long. When he is seen in the emergency room, after waiting for two hours, he is exhausted. On physical examination there are no abnormal findings. Urinalysis reveals no ketones, glucose, protein, nitrite, or urobilinogen, but blood is present. Urine microscopic examination shows many RBCs but few WBCs. The specific gravity is 1.015 and the pH is 5.5.

      Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?

      A Benign prostatic hyperplasia

      B Membranous glomerulonephritis

      C Ureteral calculus

      D Renal angiomyolipoma

      E Urothelial carcinoma of bladder

      [HIDE](C) CORRECT. These acute symptoms are typical for a calculus that is being passed.[/HIDE]


      Question 27

      A 15-year-old girl has had increasing lethargy following a bout of the "flu" 3 weeks ago. On physical examination there are no abnormal findings. Her condition does not improve after 3 weeks on corticosteroid therapy, so a renal biopsy is performed. Microscopic examination shows segmental sclerosis of 3 of 10 glomeruli identified in the biopsy specimen. Immunofluorescence studies and electron microscopy do not show immune deposits.

      What is the most appropriate advice to give the girl's parents regarding her condition?

      A She may require a renal transplant in 10 years

      B She will probably improve with additional corticosteroid therapy

      C She will likely develop a restrictive lung disease

      D She has an underlying malignancy

      E She will improve if she loses weight

      [HIDE](A) CORRECT. The findings point to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), which leads to chronic renal failure in half of cases. The lack of resolution with corticosteroid therapy and the progression to chronic renal failure is what sets FSGS apart from minimal change disease.[/HIDE]


      Question 28

      A 59-year-old man notes blood in his urine for the past week. On physical examination there are no abnormal findings. A urinalysis confirms the presence of blood, but no proteinuria or glucosuria. A urine culture is negative. A cystoscopy is performed, and a 3 cm exophytic mass is seen in the dome of the bladder. A biopsy of this mass is performed and microscopic examination reveals fibrovascular cores covered by a thick layer of transitional cells.

      Which of the following risk factors is most likely to have led to development of this lesion?

      A Diabetes mellitus

      B Recurrent urinary tract infection

      C Therapy with methicillin

      D Cigarette smoking

      E Tuberous sclerosis

      F Use of NSAIDS

      [HIDE](D) CORRECT. He has a urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder, and smokers are at increased risk for this cancer. These cancers can be multiple and recurrent. Additional less common risk factors include exposure to aniline dyes and to beta-naphthylamine compounds. Drugs that increase the risk include phenacetin and cyclophosphamide.[/HIDE]


      Question 29

      A 53-year-old woman has noted fever and right flank pain for the past 3 days. On physical examination her temperature is 38.4 C and there is right costovertebral angle tenderness. A urinalysis reveals sp. gr. 1.010, pH 7.5, no glucose, no protein, no ketones, and 1+ blood. Many WBCs and WBC casts are seen on urine microscopic examination. An abdominal radiograph reveals a radiopaque calculus that forms a cast of a dilated right renal collecting system. A urine culture grows Proteus vulgaris.

      Which of the following crystals is most likely to be seen in large numbers on microscopic urinalysis in this woman?

      A Calcium oxalate

      B Cystine

      C Calcium phosphate

      D Uric acid

      E Magnesium ammonium phosphate

      [HIDE](E) CORRECT. She has a staghorn calculus and acute pyelonephritis. These 'infection stones' are typically the 'triple phosphate' stones whose formation is aided by infection with urea-splitting bacteria such as Proteus.[/HIDE]


      Question 30

      A 60-year-old man was diagnosed last year with adenocarcinoma of the lung, and he underwent right lower lobectomy. For the past 3 weeks he has had increasing malaise. On physical examination he has pitting edema to his knees and presacral edema. Abdominal and chest CT scans show scattered hepatic mass lesions and hilar lymphadenopathy. A urinalysis reveals 4+ proteinuria, and his 24 hour urine protein is 2.7 gm. His serum urea nitrogen is 55 mg/dL with creatinine of 6.1 mg/dL. A renal biopsy is performed, and there is focal deposition of IgG and C3 with a granular pattern.

      Which of the following forms of glomerular disease is he most likely to have?

      A Membranous glomerulonephritis

      B Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis

      C Nodular glomerulosclerosis

      D Goodpasture syndrome

      E Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, type II

      [HIDE](A) CORRECT. Most cases of membranous GN are idiopathic, but in some patients there is a history of an infection or a malignancy (usually lung) with antigenemia.[/HIDE]

    7. #7
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      MCQs : Organ System Pathology - Renal


      Question 31

      A clinical study is performed with subjects born with congenital urinary tract anomalies to assess the development of long term complications. One group of subjects is found to have an increased risk for development of a carcinoma.

      Which of the following congenital anomalies is most likely to carry this risk?

      A Unilateral renal agenesis

      B Bladder exstrophy

      C Bilateral ureteral duplication

      D Horseshoe kidney

      E Medullary sponge kidney

      [HIDE](B) CORRECT. This is serious, and requires surgical repair. The exposed bladder predisposes to infection. There is a long-term risk for carcinoma, such as bladder adenocarcinoma or colonic adenocarcinoma.[/HIDE]


      Question 32

      A 55-year-old man has had dysuria for the past week. Over the past 2 days he has experienced shaking chills. On physical examination his temperature is 39.3 C.. A urinalysis shows sp gr 1.016, pH 6, 1+ glucose, 1+ blood, no ketones, and no protein. Urine microscopic examination shows numerous WBCs and WBC casts. His serum creatinine is 1.5 mg/dL and glucose 155 mg/dL with hemoglobin A1C 8.7%. A renal ultrasound scan shows a 0.3 cm free floating echodense object in the left renal pelvis.

      Which of the following complications has this man most likely developed?

      A Acute tubular necrosis

      B Aspergillus fungus ball

      C Cystine calculus

      D Hematoma

      E Papillary necrosis

      F Renal cell carcinoma

      G Urothelial carcinoma

      [HIDE](E) CORRECT. Papillary necrosis is a renal complication of diabetes mellitus, as in this case. Papillary necrosis may also be seen with analgesic abuse nephropathy, with sickle cell anemia, and with a severe acute pyelonephritis.[/HIDE]


      Question 33

      A 49-year-old woman has had increasing malaise for the past 6 months. On physical examination there are no abnormal findings except for diminished sensation to pinprick and light touch in her lower legs and feet. She is afebrile and normotensive. Laboratory studies show serum creatinine 4.5 mg/dL, urea nitrogen 42 mg/dL, glucose 130 mg/dL, and hemoglobin A1C 7.9%. A urinalysis shows 1+ glucose, 1+ protein, no blood, and no ketones. Urine microscopic examination shows 1 RBC/hpf and 1 WBC/hpf.

      Which of the following pathologic abnormalities is she most likely to have in her kidneys?

      A Acute pyelonephritis

      B Acute tubular necrosis

      C Chronic glomerulonephritis

      D Hydronephrosis

      E Hyperplastic arteriolosclerosis

      F Membranous glomerulonephritis

      G Nodular glomerulosclerosis

      H Polycystic change

      [HIDE](G) CORRECT. The classic lesion with diabetes mellitus is nodular glomerulosclerosis, which gradually reduces renal function. Diffuse glomerulosclerosis may also be present.[/HIDE]


      Question 34


      A 25-year-old G3 P2 woman has felt no fetal movement by 18 weeks gestation. Fetal ultrasound scan reveals the lack of amniotic fluid, making imaging difficult, but bilaterally asymmetrically enlarged fetal kidneys are seen. No fetal bladder can be visualized. The fetal heart appears to have four chambers, and the feet have marked varus deformities. At the time of birth at 36 weeks gestation, the neonate has severe respiratory difficulty.

      Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?

      A Bilateral Wilms tumor

      B Dominant polycystic kidney disease

      C Urethral atresia

      D Hypospadias

      E Multicystic renal dysplasia

      [HIDE](E) CORRECT. This is the most common cause for congenital polycystic kidneys, and it has a sporadic occurrence. It can be unilateral, or involve only a part of a kidney, in which case survival is possible.[/HIDE]


      Question 35

      A 49-year-old woman has been hospitalized for the past 10 days for treatment of bronchopneumonia. She has developed chills and fever over the past 2 days. On physical examination her temperature is 38.8 C and she has a diffuse erythematous skin rash. Laboratory studies show serum creatinine 2.2 mg/dL and glucose 73 mg/dL. A peripheral blood smear reveals eosinophilia. On urinalysis she has 2+ proteinuria but no blood, glucose, or ketones.

      Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?

      A Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis

      B Drug-induced interstitial nephritis

      C IgA nephropathy

      D Acute tubular necrosis

      E Acute serum sickness

      [HIDE](B) CORRECT. These findings are typical for a drug-induced acute interstitial nephritis. The eosinophilia is seen with allergic phenomena (as in a drug allergy).[/HIDE]

    8. #8
      trimurtulu is offline MedicalGeek Resident
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      Question 36

      A clinical study is performed with subjects diagnosed with hypertension who underwent an extensive workup to determine possible treatable causes for the hypertension. It is observed that some causes for hypertension are surgically correctable, while other causes are amenable to pharmacologic therapy. Laboratory findings in the subjects are analyzed.

      Which of the following laboratory test findings is most likely to be present in subjects with hypertension treated by drugs, rather than by surgery?

      A Hyperaldosteronemia

      B Hyperreninemia

      C Increased catecholamines

      D Hypercalcemia

      E Autoantibodies

      [HIDE](E) CORRECT. Immunologic diseases of the kidney often produce glomerulonephritis, and renal damage often leads to hypertension.[/HIDE]


      Question 37

      A 30-year-old man has had increasing malaise with fever, abdominal pain, and weight loss of 3 kg over the past 3 weeks. On physical examination his blood pressure is 160/110 mm Hg. He has a stool positive for occult blood. A urinalysis reveals hematuria but no proteinuria or glucosuria. He has no serum anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies and his antinuclear antibody test is negative. Aneurysmal arterial dilations and occlusions are seen in the medium sized renal and mesenteric arteries with angiography. He improves with corticosteroid therapy.

      Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis

      A Benign nephrosclerosis

      B Fibromuscular dysplasia

      C Nodular glomerulosclerosis

      D Polyarteritis nodosa

      E Systemic lupus erythematosus

      F Thrombotic microangiopathy

      G Wegener granulomatosis

      [HIDE](D) CORRECT. Classic polyarteritis nodosa often affects multiple organs, not just the kidney. The classic form of polyarteritis affects medium to small sized arteries.[/HIDE]


      Question 38

      A young, sexually active man has a two day history of burning pain with urination. Physical examination reveals no penile lesions. A urinalysis reveals no blood, glucose, protein, or ketones, but the leukocyte esterase is positive. Urine microscopic examination shows 50 WBCs/hpf. A culture of penile secretions is negative for Neisseria gonorrheae.

      Which of the following infectious agents is most likely to cause his disease?

      A Human papillomavirus

      B Hemophilus ducreyi

      C Chlamydia trachomatis

      D Treponema pallidum

      E Herpes simplex virus

      [HIDE](C) CORRECT. Now that tests for Chlamydia are routinely available, this organism has been found to cause more cases of urethritis than any other.[/HIDE]


      Question 39

      A 59-year-old man has experienced lower back pain for 4 months. On physical examination there are no abnormal findings. A urinalysis shows microscopic hematuria, but no proteinuria or glucosuria. An abdominal CT scan reveals a 6 cm solid mass in the upper pole of the right kidney. A right nephrectomy is performed, and the grossly variegated mass is seen microscopically to be composed of nests of cells with clear cytoplasm.

      Which of the following laboratory test findings likely to be associated with this lesion?

      A Hypercalcemia

      B Increased catecholamines

      C Positive serology for hepatitis B surface antigen

      D Hyponatremia

      E Hyperaldosteronemia

      [HIDE](A) CORRECT. This paraneoplastic effect can occur with renal cell carcinomas. The hypercalcemia is most likely related to elaboration of parathormone-related peptide (PTHrP) by the neoplasm.[/HIDE]
      Last edited by trimurtulu; 03-19-2009 at 07:29 AM.

    9. #9
      trimurtulu is offline MedicalGeek Resident
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      Question 40

      A 30-year-old man has noted puffiness around his eyes and swelling of his feet for the past 2 weeks. On physical examination his blood pressure is 155/95 mm Hg. Urine microscopic examination reveals oval fat bodies.

      Which of the following conditions is he most likely to have?

      A Ascending pyelonephritis

      B Nephritic syndrome

      C Nephrotic syndrome

      D Obstructive uropathy

      E Renal infarction

      F Papillary necrosis

      [HIDE](C) CORRECT. Oval fat bodies appear with pronounced proteinuria and lipiduria.
      [/HIDE]

      Question 41

      An 18-year-old primigravida has noted minimal fetal movement during pregnancy. She gives birth at 30 weeks gestation to a 2000 gm girl infant with Apgar scores of 4 and 5 at 1 and 5 minutes. The baby dies from respiratory distress within an hour of birth. At autopsy, the kidneys are markedly enlarged bilaterally. Microscopically, the renal parenchyma is replaced by numerous small radially arranged cysts.

      These findings are most likely to be seen in association with which of the following pathologic conditions?

      A Holoprosencephaly

      B Hepatic cysts and hepatic fibrosis

      C Concomitant presence of an imperforate anus

      D Lack of ureteral development

      E Papilloma of the bladder

      [HIDE](B) CORRECT. This is a case of infantile autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease.[/HIDE]


      Question 42

      A 55-year-old man is found down and unconscious. On physical examination he is afebrile. After catheterization, he passes a small amount of dark urine. The urine dipstick test for blood is positive but no red blood cells are seen on microscopic examination of the urine sediment.

      Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?

      A Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis

      B Renal papillary necrosis

      C Ureteral lithiasis

      D Myoglobinuria

      E Renal infarction

      [HIDE](D) CORRECT. The dipstick test is sensitive for both hemoglobin and myoglobin. Myoglobinuria may occur with rhabdomyolysis from muscle injury. Trauma, including prolonged immobilization in one position, may cause muscle injury.
      [/HIDE]

      Question 43

      A 5-year-old child has been noted by his mother to be lethargic for 2 weeks. On physical examination he has periorbital edema. He is afebrile. Dipstick urinalysis reveals no glucose, ketones, or blood, but he has 4+ proteinuria present. Microscopic urinalysis reveals no casts, but oval fat bodies are seen. He is treated with corticosteroid therapy and his condition improves.

      Which of the following renal electron micrographic findings is most characteristic for this child's disease?

      A Fusion of foot processes

      B Subepithelial electron dense deposits

      C Duplication of glomerular capillary basement membranes

      D Irregular thickening of the glomerular basement membranes

      E Mesangial cell proliferation

      [HIDE](A) CORRECT. This is the typical (and only) pathologic finding for minimal change disease, the most common cause for nephrotic syndrome in children, but it can be seen at older ages, too.[/HIDE]


      Question 44

      A 70-year-old man has noted passing darker urine for the past week. On physical examination he has vital signs with T 37.1 C, P 73/minute, RR 16/minute, and BP 130/80 mm Hg. Laboratory studies include urinalysis with sp gr 1.015, pH 7, 2+ blood, no glucose, no protein, and no ketones. Urine microscopic examination shows 10 to 15 RBC/hpf and no WBCs, casts, or crystals. Cystoscopy is performed and no lesions are noted. Intravenous urography shows a 2 cm filling defect in the left renal pelvis.

      Which of the following laboratory test findings is most likely to be present in this man?

      A Polycythemia

      B Leukocytosis

      C Hypercalciuria

      D Positive serology for antinuclear antibody

      E Urine cytology with atypical cells

      [HIDE](E) CORRECT. The mass is probably a urothelial carcinoma, and atypical cells would appear in the urine.[/HIDE]


      Question 45

      A 10-year-old girl is brought to the physician because of increasing lethargy and passing dark-coloured urine for the past week. She had a sore throat two weeks prior to this. On physical examination she is afebrile with blood pressure 140/90 mm Hg. Laboratory studies show her serum creatinine is 2.8 mg/dL and urea nitrogen 24 mg/dL. Urinalysis shows 2+ blood, 1+ protein, no glucose, and no ketones. Microscopic urinalysis shows dysmorphic RBC's. A renal biopsy is performed and on microscopic examination shows glomerular hypercellularity, with PMNs present. Electron microscopy shows subepithelial electron dense "humps".

      Which of the following laboratory test findings is most likely to be present in this girl?

      A Elevated serum glucose

      B Antibody to double stranded DNA

      C Antiglomerular basement membrane antibody

      D Positive C3 nephritogenic factor

      E Elevated antistreptolysin O titer

      [HIDE](E) CORRECT. This hypercellular glomerulus has many neutrophils, characteristic for a post-infectious glomerulonephritis, for which a nephritogenic strain of group A Streptococcus is a likely etiology.[/HIDE]

    10. #10
      ramaenganti is offline MedicalGeek Verified
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      thanks a lot man! Very helpful indeed

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