A 62-year-old Man Has Complained Of Pain On Urination For The Past Week. He Is Afebrile. On Cystoscopy, A Slightly Erythematous 1 Cm Diameter Area Is Seen On The Bladder Mucosa. This Area Is Biopsied And On Microscopic Examination Shows Cells With Marked Hyperchromatism And Increased Nuclear/cytoplasmic Ratio Involving The Full Thickness Of The Epithelium. However, These Changes Are Confined To The Epithelium Above The Basement Membrane.

Which Of The Following Terms Best Describes These Biopsy Findings?

A Metaplasia

B Minimal Dysplasia

C Microinvasion

D Hyperplasia

E Carcinoma In Situ


answer / Explanation:

(e) Correct.

Malignancy Confined To The Epithelium Is Cis, And Such Lesions When Excised Have Essentially A 100% Cure Rate.