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Thread: Differential Diagnosis in Nephrology

  1. #1
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    Thumbs up Differential Diagnosis in Nephrology

    Differential Diagnosis in Nephrology


    Causes of acute renal failure
    Prerenal
    Volume depletion
    Poor intake
    Diuretics
    GI losses
    Hemorrhage
    Third space loss
    Peripheral vasodilation
    Sepsis
    Liver disease
    Antihypertensive agents
    Increased renal vascular resistance
    Anesthesia
    Surgery
    Prostaglandin inhibitors
    Hepatorenal syndrome
    Cardiovascular
    AMI
    Cardiac failure
    Arrythmia
    Cardiac tamponade
    Pulmonary embolism
    Renal vascular occlusion
    Renal artery stenosis
    Embolism/athero-emboli
    Thrombosis
    Vasculitis

    Intrinsic
    Renal vascular disorders
    Malignant hypertension
    cholestrol emboli
    Vasculitides
    TTP/HUS
    Scleroderma renal crisis
    Toxemia of pregnancy
    Glomerular diseases
    Acute postinfectious
    Diffuse proliferative GN
    rapidly progressive GN
    SLE
    Endocarditis
    Goopastures syndrome
    Vasculitis
    Acute tubular necrosis
    Ischemia
    Nephrotoxic agents
    Aminoglycosides
    Cyclosporin
    Acyclovir
    Pentamadine
    Contrast dye
    Heavy metals
    Cisplatinim
    rhabdomyolysis
    Hemolysis
    Hypercalcemia
    Myeloma proteins
    Light-chain nephropathy
    Tubulointerstitial diseases
    Allergic interstitial nephritis
    Sepsis; gram -ve's and S.aureus
    Leptospirosis
    Brucellosis
    Leukemia
    Lymphoma
    Sarcoidosis

    Postrenal
    ureteral obstruction
    Retroperitoneal fibrosis or tumor
    Bilateral strictures after surgery or radiation
    Bilateral ureteral calculi
    Bilateral papillary necrosis
    Bilateral fungal balls
    Benign prostatic hypertrophy
    Prostatic cancer
    Bladder cancer
    Cervical cancer
    Neurogenic bladder



    Major causes of chronic renal failure
    Hypertension
    Primary glomerular diseases
    Focal glomerulosclerosis
    Membranous nephropathy
    IgA nephropathy
    Membranoproliferative GN
    Idiopathic crescentic GN
    Glomerulopathies assoc. with systemic diseases
    Diabetes
    Amyloidosis
    Postinfectious GN
    SLE
    Wegeners
    HUS
    Tubulointerstitial diseases
    Analgesic nephropathy
    Reflux nephropathy
    Myeloam
    sarcoid
    Toxic (lead, cadmium)
    Hereditary diseases
    Polycystic kidney disease
    Alports syndrome
    Medulary cystic disease
    Renovasuclar disease
    Obstructive uropathy




    Drugs that affect serum creatinine
    Decrease creatinine excretion
    Cimetidine
    Trimethoprim
    Compounds measured as creatinine Acetoacetic acid in DKA
    Cefoxitin
    Flucytosine


    Causes of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis
    Primary
    Idiopathic
    Minimal change disease
    Hereditary
    Secondary

    Infection; HIV
    Drugs; herion
    Obesity



    Rapidly progressive GN
    Anti-GBM disease
    With lung hemorrhage (Goodpastures)
    Without hemorrhage (anti-GBM nephritis)
    Complicating membranous nephropathy
    Immune complex mediated
    Postinfectious GN
    Poststreptococcal
    Endocarditis
    Visceral abscess
    Collagen vascular
    SLE
    Cryoglobulinemia
    Henoch-Schonleinpurpura
    Primary renal disease
    Membranoproliferative GN
    IgA nephropathy
    ANCA assoc. GN
    Polyarterisis nodosa (p-ANCA)
    Wegeners granulomatosis (c-ANCA)
    Idiopathic crescentic GN


    Causes of membranoploferative GN types I-III
    Type I
    Idiopathic
    Collagen vascular diseases (RA, SLE)
    Complement deficiencies
    Cryoglobulinemia
    Infections
    Viral; hep C, hep B, HIV
    SBE, infected shunt
    P.malariae, Mycoplasma
    Type II
    Idiiopathic
    Assoc C3 nephritic factor
    Factor H defect
    Type III
    Idiopathic
    Same as for type 1


    Causes of nephrotic syndrome
    Primary glomerular diseases
    Minimal change disease
    Membranous nephropathy
    Focal glomerulosclerosis
    Membranoproliferative GN
    Secondary glomerular diseases
    Post-infectious; streptococcal, SBE, HIV etc
    Metabolic; DM, myxedema
    Connective tissue diseases and vasculitis
    SLE
    PAN
    Goodpasture's
    Scleroderma
    Neoplastic; lymphoma, leukemia
    Drugs; gold, penicillamine, lithium captopril
    Systemic diseases; amyloid, malignant H/T
    Inherited diseases; sickle cell disease, nail-patella syndrome etc



    Drugs associated with acute interstitial nephritis
    Beta lactam antibiotics
    Methicillin (NB)
    Penicillin G
    Flucloxacin
    Oxacillin
    Nafcillin
    Carbenicillin
    Amoxicillin
    Mezlocillin
    Piperacillin
    Cephalothin
    Cephradine
    Cefotaxime
    cefoxitin
    Cefaclor
    Cefazolin
    Cefotetan
    Other antibiotics
    Sulphonomides (NB)
    TMP/SMX (NB)
    Rifampin (NB)
    Polymuxin B
    Ethambutol
    Vancomycin
    Cloramphenicaol
    Minocycline
    Ciprofloxacin
    Nitrofurantoin
    Norfloxacin
    erythromycin
    Spiramycin
    Acyclovir
    Foscarnet
    Diuretics
    Thiazides (NB)
    Furosemide
    Chlorthalidone
    Triampterene
    Indapamide
    NSAIDS
    Fenoprofen (NB)
    Indomethacin
    Naproxen
    Ibuprofen
    Mefenamic acid
    Tolmetin
    Diflunisal
    Pirixicam
    Diclofenac
    Ketoprofen
    Suprofen
    Sulindac
    Other
    Phenytoin (NB)
    Cimetidine (NB)
    Omeprazole (NB)
    Sulpinpyrazone (NB)
    Allopurinal (NB)
    Aspirin (NB)
    Carbamazepine
    Clofibrate
    Azathioprine
    Methyldopa
    Phenobarbital
    Interferon
    Halperidol
    Valproate
    Captopril
    Ranitidine


    Causes of RTA type I (distal)
    Primary
    Genetic systemic diseases

    Marfans syndrome
    sicle cell anemia
    Carbonic anhydrase I def
    Galactosemia
    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
    Fabry's disease
    Hereditary elliptocytosis
    Metabolic disorders
    Idiopathic hypercalcuria
    Hyperthyroidism
    Primary hyperparathyroidism
    Vit D intoxication
    Hypergammaglobulinemic disorders
    Amyloidosis
    Idiopathic hyperglobulinemia
    Cryoglobulinemia
    Medullary sponge disease
    Hepatic cirrhosis
    Wilsons disease
    Drug induced

    Amphotericin B
    Vitamin D
    Lithium
    Analgesics
    Amiloride
    Aminoglycosides
    Pyelonephritis
    Renal t/p
    Obstructive nephropathy
    Autoimmune disorders

    Sjogrens syndrome
    Thyroiditis
    Pulmonary fibrosis
    Primary biliary cirrhosis
    SLE
    Multiple myeloma
    Hodgkins disease



    Causes of RTA type II (proximal)
    Primary; fanconi syndrome
    Inborn errors metabolism
    Wilson's disease
    Cystinosis
    Metabolic disorders
    Vit D def
    Prim/second hyperparathyroidism
    Disorders of protein metabolism
    Nephrotic syndrome
    Multiple myeloma
    sjrogens syndrome
    Amyloid
    Medullary cystic disease
    Renal t/p
    Drugs
    Tetracyclines
    6-mercaptopurine
    Streptozotocin
    Sulphonamide
    Acetalomide
    Havy metals
    Lead
    Cadmium
    Mercury

    Causes of RTA type IV
    Aldosterone deficiency
    Addisons disease
    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia
    Diabetic nephropathy (dec renin)
    Other
    Chronic pyelonephritis
    Lupus nephritis
    Renal t/p
    Amyloid

    Causes of hematuria
    Glomerular
    Isolated asymptomatic
    Thin basement membrane disease
    IgA nephropathy
    Nephrotic
    Nephritis
    Rapidly progressive GN
    Chronic GN
    Renal
    Interstitial nephritis
    Papillary necrosis
    renal cysts
    Malignancy
    Trauma
    Embolic infarct
    Ureter
    Nephroliathis
    TB
    Malignancy
    Bladder
    Cystitis
    Malignancy
    Trauma
    Prostate
    Prostatis
    Carcinoma
    Hypertrophy
    Urethra
    Acute urethritis
    Diverticulum
    Trauma

    Causes of proteinuria
    Overflow
    Multiple myeloma
    Lymphoma
    rhabdomyolysis
    Glomerular
    Membranous GN
    Minimal change
    Diabetes
    FGS
    SLE
    Post streptococcal GN
    Tubulointerstitial
    Interstitial nephritis
    Aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity

    Causes of rhabdomyolysis
    Traumatic
    crush injury
    Excessive activity in sports
    Burns
    Limb ischemia
    Status epilepticus
    DT's
    Toxins
    Ethanol
    Isopropyl alcohol
    Ethylene glycol
    Carbon monoxide
    Toluene
    Mercuric chloride
    Insect bite
    Metabolic
    Diabetic ketoacidosis
    Nonketotic hyperosmolar coma
    Hypokalmeia
    Hypernatremia
    Hypophosphatemia
    Hypomagnesemia
    Hypothermia
    Drugs
    Cocaine
    Heroin
    LSD
    Amphetamines
    Codein
    Salicylate OD
    HMGCo A reductase inhibitors
    Genetic disorders
    Infections
    Viral; coxsakie, hepatitis
    Legionnaires disease
    Pseudomonas
    Thank you GOD

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    thank you

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