Lecture notes in Basic Pathology
power-point lecture & self-assessments
------------------ Contents: 1. Introduction:
2. Cell Injury & Cell death:
- Understand the meaning of the terms Pathology, aetiology, pathogenesis & Prognosis.
- Understand different types of mechanisms which result in disease.
- Know the different disciplines that make up the study of Pathology.
3. Inflammation & Healing:
- Understand the mechanisms of cell injury.
- Difference between necrosis, apoptosis, and degeneration.
- Know different types of tissue necrosis.
4. Disorders of circulation:
- Understand the process and purpose of inflammation
- Know the cardinal features of inflammation
- Nature and differences between acute and chronic inflammation.
- Know the process involved in healing/repair of injured tissue.
- Understand the meaning of Ischemia, infarction, thrombosis and embolism.
- Know the risk factors for and understand the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.
- Understand the meaning of terms Oedema, shock and cardiac failure..
6. Genetics and disease:
- Understand the concept of innate and adaptive immune responses.
- Know the cell types and tissues involved in the immune system
- Be aware of causes and effects of immunodeficiency
- Understand the risk factors and pathogenesis of AIDS.
- Understand the hypersensitivity reactions and their consequences.
- Be aware of concept of autoimmune diseases.
7. Cellular Adaptation to Disease:
- Know the normal human chromosome complement.
- Understand chromosomal abnormalities with Down’s syndrome as an example.
- Be aware of different patterns of inheritance of single gene disorders.
- Be aware of investigations of genetic disorder.
- Understand and know the meaning of the terms Hyperplasia, Hypertrophy, Atrophy.
- Understand significance and possible causes of Metaplasia & Dysplasia.
SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY 9. Cardiovascular System:
- Define term neoplasia, tumor, Cancer, carcinoma & sarcoma.
- Know the distinction between benign and malignant neoplasms.
- Understand the basis of tumour classification, nomenclature.
- Understand the concepts of tumor grade and stage.
- Understand the basic concept of oncogenesis, oncogenes
- Have the knowledge of treatment modalities available for malignant neoplasms.
10. Respiratory System:
- Understand Ischemic heart disease, coronary heart disease.
- Understand heart failure.
- Mechanism and effects of Hypertension
- Valvular heart disease & Pathogenesis of Rheumatic fever (review)
- Effects of Heart disease
11. Gastrointestinal System:
- Respiratory tract infections, Pneumonia.
- Asthma & Allergy.
- Tuberculosis - Pathogenesis & effects.
- Lung Cancer - Risk factors and Pathogenesis.
12. Liver & Pancreas:
- Understand causes and management of Peptic Ulcer disease
- Understand digestion, disorders of Malabsorption
- Understand terms diarrhoea, constipation, causes and management.
- Infections of GIT- Appendicitis &Typhoid
- Understand the mechanisms of Intestinal Obstruction.
- Tumors of intestine. Cancer of colon.
13. Hematology: Diseases of blood and blood forming organs.
- Understand liver diseases, Jaundice, causes and management.
- Alcoholic liver disease - Pathogenesis and complications
- Viral Hepatitis - Understand complications & Routes of spread,
- Gall stones and their effects.
- Pancreatitis - types & effects
14. Urinary system:
- Understand the significance of common blood tests, "penias & philias"
- Anemia - Understand and its causes and management.
- Understand White cells and their significance in diseases
- Understand the term Leukemia major types, modality of treatment.
- Understand Hemostasis, coagulation with example - Hemophilia
15. Nervous System:
- Understand common Disorders of Kidney, and their manifestations.
- Understand terms Nephritic syndrome, nephrotic sysndrome, Glomerulonephritis, Pyelonephritis
- Chronic kidney disease, End stage kidney.
- Understand causes and management of Renal calculi.
- Infections, tumors & obstruction of urinary tract.
- Special features of nerve cells, and brain.
- Head injury, its effects, understand terms cerebral edema, hematoma
- Understand Cerebral infarction, hemorrhage and their effects.
- Infections types septic/aseptic, Understand meningitis & encephalitis.
- Degenerations - Alzheimers disease.
- Understand tumors of brain, their types and effects.
- Sexually transmitted diseases
- Reproductive system - cervical cancer, PAP smear.
- Common diseases of male genital system - BPH, ca prostate.
- Arthritis - Rheumatoid, osteoarthritis.
- Osteomalacia & Osteoporosis
Lecture notes in Basic Pathology