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Thread: Cell Injury and Death

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    Arrow Cell Injury and Death

    Cell Injury and Death


    Cell Injury and Cell Death
    Causes of Cell Injury and Cell Death
    Mechanisms of Injury
    Morphological Changes Associated with Reversible Injury
    Cell Injury Vs Cell death
    Types of Cell Death
    Apoptosis Vs Necrosis
    Causes of Cell Injury
    Physical Agents e.g.. trauma, thermal injury
    Chemical Agents e.g. poisons, environmental pollutants and drugs
    Nutritional
    Infectious Diseases caused by protozoa, bacteria, viruses
    Immunological mechanisms
    Inherited diseases- inborn errors of metabolism
    Mechanisms of Cell Injury
    Two mechanisms serve as useful models:
    fatty change
    hypoxia
    fatty change is generally a reversible form of sublethal injury whereas the effects of hypoxia depend on the severity, duration
    and on the vulnerability of the cell
    Mechanisms of Cell Injury
    Fatty Change
    Accumulation of fat in hepatocytes depends on rate of fat synthesis, catabolism
    Malnutrition impairs protein synthesis and therefore reduces lipoprotein synthesis


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    Cell Injury and Cell Death
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    IRREVERSIBLE CELL INJURY

    Definition :

    The injury to cells is said to be irreversible if the injury causes the cells to die. The disruption of permeability barrier of the plasma membrane is critical in lethal cell injury. Influx of Ca2+ ions is known to induce loss of mitochondrial function and cause irreversible damage. Cell death is termed NECROSIS Necrosis is the circumscribed death of cells or tissues occurring in the living body. There is associated inflammatory response in the adjacent tissue. in contrast, postmortem change is general autolysis of cells and tissues after death. There is no inflammatory response seen.



    Autolysis :

    is the digestion of cells by enzymes released from lysosomes after the cell dies. Do you have a relative who is suffering from long standing diabetis ? Has he/she experienced the tip of his/her toe became black ? This is an example of necrosis. The cause of cell death is due to ischaemia.
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    Thanks a lot

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