PID (pelvic inflammatory disease)

is a generic term for infection of the female uterus, fallopian tubes, and/or ovaries as it progresses to scar formation with adhesions to nearby tissues and organs.
This may lead to tissue necrosis with/or without abscess formation. Pus can be released into the peritoneum. ⅔ of patients with laparoscopic evidence of previous PID were not aware they had had PID.
PID is often associated with sexually transmitted diseases, as it is a common result of such infections. PID is a vague term and can refer to viral, fungal, parasitic, though most often bacterial infections. PID should be classified by affected organs, the stage of the infection, and the organism(s) causing it. Although a sexually transmitted infection is often the cause, other routes are possible, including lymphatic, postpartum, postabortal (either miscarriage or abortion) or IUD related, and hematogenous spread

There may be no actual symptoms of PID. If there are symptoms, fever, cervical motion tenderness, lower abdominal pain, new or different discharge, painful intercourse, or irregular menstrual bleeding may be noted. It is important to note that PID can occur and cause serious harm without causing any noticeable symptoms.
Laparoscopic identification is helpful in diagnosing tubal disease, 65-90% positive predictive value in patients with presumed PID. Regular STD testing is important for prevention. Treatment is usually started empirically because of the terrible complications.

Definitive criteria include: histopathologic evidence of endometritis, thickened filled fallopian tubes, or laparoscopic findings. Gram-stain/smear becomes important in identification of rare and possibly more serious organisms.

Differential Diagnosis

Appendicitis, ectopic pregnancy, septic abortion, hemorrhagic or ruptured ovarian cysts or tumors, twisted ovarian cyst, degeneration of a myoma, and acute enteritis must be considered
Pelvic inflammatory disease is more likely to occur when there is a history of pelvic inflammatory disease, recent sexual contact, recent onset of menses, or an IUD in place or if the partner has a sexually transmitted disease.

Acute pelvic inflammatory disease is highly unlikely when recent intercourse has not taken place or an IUD is not being used. A sensitive serum pregnancy test should be obtained to rule out ectopic pregnancy. Culdocentesis will differentiate hemoperitoneum (ruptured ectopic pregnancy or hemorrhagic cyst) from pelvic sepsis (salpingitis, ruptured pelvic abscess, or ruptured appendix).

Pelvic and vaginal ultrasound are helpful in the differential diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy of over 6 weeks. Laparoscopy is often utilized to diagnose pelvic inflammatory disease, and it is imperative if the diagnosis is not certain or if the patient has not responded to antibiotic therapy after 48 hours.

No single test has adequate sensitivity and specificity to diagnose pelvic inflammatory disease

PID can cause scarring inside the reproductive organs, which can later cause serious complications, including chronic pelvic pain, infertility, ectopic pregnancy (the leading cause of pregnancy-related deaths in adult females), and other dangerous complications of pregnancy. Multiple infections and infections that are treated later are more likely to result in complications.

Persons with infertility may wish to see a specialist, because there may be a possibility in restoring fertility after scarring. Traditionally tuboplastic surgery was the main approach to correct tubal obstruction or adhesion formation, however success rates tended to be very limited . In vitro fertilization (IVF) was developed to bypass tubal problems and has become the main treatment for patients who want to become pregnant