Electrotherapy Notes

1) Interferential Therapy

Interferential therapy is a form of electrical treatment in which two medium-frequency currents are used to produce a low-frequency effect. Interferential current can be defined as the transcutaneous application of alternating medium-frequency electrical currents, which are slightly out of phase through the tissues, amplitude modulated at low frequency for therapeutic purposes such as relief of pain, improve circulation and enhances healing process...

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2) Electrophysiological Evaluation Procedures

Changes in Electrical Reactions: When there is disease or injury of motor nerves or muscles, alterations are liable to occur in their response to electrical stimulation. Reduction or loss of voluntary power of a muscle may be due to: 1) A lesion of the upper motor neuron, 2) A lesion of the lower motor neuron, 3) Damage to the muscle itself, 4) A fault at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), 5) A functional disorder...

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3) Infrared Radiation

Infrared radiations lie within that part of the electromagnetic spectrum which gives rise to heating when absorbed by matter. Infrared radiations are those, whose wavelengths are longer than that of visible red light extending to the microwave region, i.e., from 760 nm to 1 mm...

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4) Laser Therapy

The term laser is an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. It refers to the production of a beam of radiation, which differs from ordinary light in the following ways...

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5) Microwave Diathermy

Microwave diathermy is irradiation of the tissues with radiation in the shorter wireless part of the electromagnetic spectrum (Hertzian rays), i.e., with a wavelength between infrared and short wave diathermic radiation. The group of electromagnetic radiations known as microwaves occupies that part of the electromagnetic spectrum extending from wavelength 1 m (frequency 300 MHz) to 1 mm (frequency 300 GHz)....

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6) TENS - Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation

By definition, any stimulating device, which delivers electrical currents across the intact surface of the skin, is TENS. TENS is low-intensity, short impulses applied largely for pain relief. TENS is the application of a pulsed rectangular wave current via surface electrodes on the patientís skin...

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7) Therapeutic Direct Current

Direct current refers to a current passing continuously in the same direction. Therapeutic direct current (d.c.) has been considered to pass for more than 1 second, and is sometimes called constant current or galvanism...

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8) Therapeutic Ultrasound

Sound is defined as the periodic mechanical disturbance of an elastic medium such as air. Sound requires a medium for its transmission and cannot cross a vacuum. Ultrasound refers to mechanical vibrations, which are essentially the same as sound waves but of a higher frequency...

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9) Ultraviolet Radiation

Ultraviolet radiation is electromagnetic energy, which is invisible to the human eye, with wavelengths between 10 nm to 400 nm. Ultraviolet radiations behave in a similar way to visible radiations in the way they are reflected, refracted or absorbed, except that they are more strongly absorbed in air, in particular the short-wavelength ultraviolet...

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10) Electrotherapy Practical Performa

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