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Thread: all india 2009 paper- facts summed up

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    Default all india 2009 paper- facts summed up

    - diseases that get disability benefit under national trust act
    cerebral palsy, mental retardation, mental disabilities

    -uses of lithium
    bipolar disorder
    feltys syndrome
    cluster headache

    -uses of Modafinil
    wake promoting agent-
    -shift work sleep disorder
    but its NOT used in lethargy d/t depression

    -Ultrasound appearance of
    benign lesion(eg colloid nodule)- hyper-echoic
    malignant lesion/mets- hypo-echoic or nonechoic. microcalcifications

    added to alkylating agents/platinum based(eg cisplatin) therapy
    bcoz it protects the normal body cells frm their action
    But, it doesn't cross the BBB! Hence CNS toxicity will still remain

    -Down's syndrome
    skull- brachycephaly , delayed fontanelle closure, hypoplasia of sinuses
    atlanto axial subluxation(C1-C2)
    CHD is seen in 40%- endocardial cushion defects VSD,TOF
    ribs- 11 pairs
    GIT-umb hernia, hirschsprungs, duodenal atresia

    -Thallium scan
    for Reversible myocardial ischaemia(angina like chest pain, with non specific ecg)
    Thallium 201 goes to the perfused areas-> how much viable myocardium is left?

    Whereas Tc-99 goes to infarct areas
    Tc 99 agents- sestamibi (for Parathyroid), tetrafosmin, teboroxime

    cardiac functioning- best is MRI
    nuclear scan for cardiac functioning- MUGA scan(multiple gated blood pool imaging) in which label Tc 99 to albumin or RBCs. Used when Echo technically difficult

    -ossification of post longitudinal ligament
    =japanese disease
    resulting in compression of spinal cord
    MC in cervical spine(mid/lower)
    there is multilevel involvement!
    MRI is the best Inv. for spinal stenosis(best for all spinal conditions in fact.) affected ligaments will appear dark on both T1 and T2
    Blooming effect- on graded echo, osteophyte size may be exaggerated resulting on overestimation of canal stenosis

    pulmonary artery hyperT
    CXR- peripheral pruning
    rt descending pulm artery more than 16mm
    main pulmonary artery is wide
    Right sided cardiac enlargement

    most sensitive for DCIS
    but mammography is used for screening bcoz MRI is nonspecific

    fat containing breast lesions
    traumatic fat necrosis

    changes in mammography sensitivity with age
    as age inc, glandular tissue involutes and is replaced by fat
    so as age inc, mammography sensitivity increases
    less sensitive in young women with more glandular tissue ie more dense breasts

    adrenal adenoma on CT
    rapid uptake and rapid washout of contrast

    well defined, homogenous bcoz benign
    though calcification is rare
    low attenuation is d/t lipid content

    ultrasound findings in following conditions of GB
    -adenomyomatosis- thickened GB wall, comet tail/ring down/rokintasky ashcoff sinuses/reverberation artefacts(hyperechoic)
    -emphysematous GB-similar but also h/o large round GB, Diabetes,WBCs often normal
    -cholesterolosis- normal thickness of GB wall. comet tail defects present
    -Cancer of GB- thick wall, no comet tail defect

    signs of successful stellate block
    Horner's syndrome('pamela'- ptosis, anhidrosis, miosis, enopthalmos, absence of ciliospinal reflex)
    flushing of face, conjunctival suffusion
    lacrimation(sup. cervical ganglion)
    mueller's syndrome- injection of tympanic membrane
    guttmans sign- ipsilateral nasal stuffiness
    inc temp & vasodilation- ipsilateral face n upper limb

    paravertebral block spread doesnt occur to
    subarachnoid space(there is no communication)

    additives to local anaesthetic solutions
    sodium bicarbonate- inc pH -inc unionised form of LA- diffuses quickly. ***inc speed, intensity, duration (thus overall quality) of block
    1ml of 8.4% per 10 ml of LA
    adrenaline- inc speed, intensity, duration (thus overall quality) of block
    -dec toxic level of drug
    dextrose- added to subarachnoid solutions, to adjust baracity(density) of solution wrt CSF
    narcotics/opioids- analgesics

    will add more Qs soon
    Last edited by student_forever; 07-06-2011 at 10:02 PM.

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