Virology - Case Study
5 year old boy is seen in the office with a history of fever, body aches and nausea. His temperature at home was 39 degrees (102.2 degrees F). He was treated with acetaminophen which resulted in normalization of his temperature and improvement in his body aches. He has been taking fluids without vomiting. He has a slight cough and nasal congestion, but no sore throat, headache, diarrhea, abdominal pain, or urinary complaints.Exam: T37.2, P80, R25, BP 90/60, oxygen saturation 100% in room air. Height and weight are at the 50th percentile. He is alert, active and cooperative. He is not toxic and not irritable. His exam findings are unremarkable except for nasal congestion.
--------------------------You tell his mother that he has a virus infection, which is something like a flu type of illness. She says, "That's what he had two weeks ago.
How can he keep getting the same virus over and over again? What's the name of this virus anyway?
How can he get rid of it?
" You explain that this is not the same virus, that there are many different viruses, and that his immune system eventually clears the virus from his system. But he is still susceptible to many other viruses. You're not really sure of the name for his current virus, but we don't have any antiviral treatments for this virus anyway.
Summary of virus classifications
I. DNA viruses (Poor pappy adds hep to her pox)
. . . . 1. Parvovirus (human parvovirus B19)
. . . . 2. Papovavirus (papillomavirus, polyomavirus)
. . . . 3. Adenovirus (many which cause febrile respiratory infections)
. . . . 1. Hepadnavirus (hepatitis B)
. . . . 2. Herpesvirus (HSV, VZV, EBV, CMV)
. . . . 3. Poxvirus (variola, vaccinia, molluscum contagiosum)
II. +RNA viruses (Pete can float toward the coast backward)
. . . . 1. Picornavirus (PEECoRnA = polio, entero, echo, coxsackie, rhino, hepA)
. . . . 2. Calicivirus (Norwalk, hepatitis E)
. . . . 1. Flavivirus (yellow fever, dengue, St. Louis encephalitis, hepatitis C)
. . . . 2. Togavirus (rubella, equine encephalitis)
. . . . 3. Coronavirus (colds)
. . . . 4. Retrovirus (HIV)
III. -RNA viruses (raspberry filled parfaits are often burned )
A. Naked - none
. . . . 1. Rhabdovirus (rabies)
. . . . 2. Filovirus (Ebola)
. . . . 3. Paramyxovirus (measles, mumps, RSV, parainfluenza)
. . . . 4. Arenavirus
. . . . 5. Orthomyxovirus (influenza)
. . . . 6. Bunyavirus (Hanta)
------------------IV. dsRNA viruses (ORR)
A. Orbivirus (Colorado tick fever)
1. Name the 3 naked and 3 enveloped DNA virus families.
2. In terms of the potential duration of infection, how do naked viruses differ from enveloped viruses?
3. Name 6 viruses within the picornavirus family.
4. How are members of the herpesvirus family similar?
5. Name 4 viruses which cause cold symptoms?
6. Name the +RNA viral families.
7. Name two naked (non-enveloped) viruses which cause chronic infection.
8. Name the -RNA viral families.
9. Naked viruses are mostly of what morphologic shape on light microscopy?
10. Name 4 virus families which cause central nervous system infections.
Answers / Notes
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