Gene cloning is a process by which large quantities of a specific, desired gene or section of DNA may be cloned or copied once the desired DNA has been isolated.
Method of Gene Cloning:
1) The gene or DNA that is desired is isolated using restriction enzymes.
2) Both the desired gene and a plasmid are treated with the same restriction enzyme to produce identical sticky ends.
3. The DNAs from both sources are mixed together and treated with the enzyme DNA ligase to splice them together.
4. Recombinant DNA, with the plasmid containing the added DNA or gene has been formed.
5. The recombinant plasmids are added to a culture of bacterial cells. Under the right conditions, some of the bacteria will take in the plasmid from the solution during a process known as transformation.
6. As the bacterial cells reproduces (by mitosis), the recombinant plasmid is copied. Soon, there will be millions of bacteria containing the recombinant plasmid with its introduced gene.
7. The introduced gene can begin producing its protein via transcription and translation.