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    Default anatomy question bank ?

    hi ,
    I m looking for anatomy question book ...

    how can I find ?

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    please use the search option. CLICK HERE
    http://www.medicalgeek.com/image.php?type=sigpic&userid=6672&dateline=1196547  885

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    why we dont get this MCQS here
    and really B anatomy Bank
    i like this i dea

    what's ur openin??

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    Anatomy Tables - Hip & Posterior Thigh & Leg

    Osteology
    Bone Structure Description Notes
    ischium the "V"-shaped bone that forms the posteroinferior part of the pelvis one of the three bones that form the os coxae: ilium, ischium, pubis
    ischial spine the spine that arises just superior to the lesser sciatic notch it is the site of attachment of the sacrospinous ligament and the site of origin of the superior gemellus m. (Greek, ischion = hip joint)
    ischial tuberosity the roughened projection that protrudes posteroinferiorly from the body of the ischium it is the site of attachment of the sacrotuberous ligament; it is the site of origin of the inferior gemellus m., quadratus femoris m. and the hamstring mm. (semitendinosus, semimembranosus, long head of biceps femoris, ischiocondylar portion of the adductor magnus) (Greek, ischion = hip joint)
    lesser sciatic notch the notch located between the ischial tuberosity and the ischial spine the lesser sciatic notch is converted to the lesser sciatic foramen by the sacrospinous and sacrotuberous ligaments
    femur the bone of the thigh the femur is the longest and strongest bone in the body
    head smooth, rounded proximal end the head of the femur articulates with the acetabulum of the pelvis
    neck the constricted area distal to the head of the femur most of the blood supply to the head of the femur courses along the surface of the neck; fractures of the neck of the femur may result in avascular necrosis of the head
    greater trochanter a large process that projects superiorly from the junction of the neck and shaft of the femur the greater trochanter is the insertion site of the gluteus medius m., gluteus minimus m., piriformis m. and obturator internus m. (Greek, trochanter = a runner or roller, from trochos, a wheel. Originally used for the head of the femur, which turns like a wheel in its socket. Eventually it came to mean the bony processes of the femur)
    lesser trochanter a large process that projects from the posteromedial surface of the femur just distal to neck it is the insertion site of the common tendon of the psoas major and iliacus mm. (iliopsoas m.) (Greek, trochanter = a runner or roller, from trochos, a wheel. Originally used for the head of the femur, which turns like a wheel in its socket. Eventually it came to mean the bony processes of the femur)
    trochanteric fossa a depression on the medial side of the greater trochanter on its posterior surface where the greater trochanter joins the neck it is the insertion site of the obturator externus m.
    intertrochanteric crest a heavy ridge on the posterior surface of the femur that connects the greater and lesser trochanters the quadratus femoris m. inserts on the intertrochanteric crest
    gluteal tuberosity a roughened area located on the posterior surface of the femur at the superior end of the lateral lip of the linea aspera it is one of the insertion sites of the gluteus maximus m.
    fibula the slender bone on the lateral side of the leg the fibula is not a weight-bearing bone, it is a muscle attachment bone
    head the enlarged proximal end of the fibula it articulates with the lateral condyle of tibia; the fibular collateral ligament of the knee attaches to the head of the fibula
    neck the constricted portion of the fibula located just inferior to the head fractures of the neck of the fibula can injure the common fibular n.
    ilium fan-shaped bone that forms the lateral prominence of the pelvis one of three bones that form the os coxae: ilium, ischium, pubis
    greater sciatic notch the notch on the inferior portion of ilium located posteromedial to the ischial spine the greater sciatic notch is converted to the greater sciatic foramen by the sacrospinous ligament and the sacrotuberous ligament
    os coxae one of three bones that form the pelvis paired; the os coxae forms the lateral part of the pelvis; it is formed by three fused bones: ischium, ilium & pubis; also known as the innominate bone
    obturator foramen a large foramen formed by the pubic and ischial rami obturator means to occlude or stop up, a reference to the fact that the obturator membrane closes the obturator foramen almost completely; a site of attachment for the obturator externus m. and the obturator internus m.
    obturator groove groove on the inferior surface of the superior pubic ramus marks the area of passage of the obturator vessels and n. in the obturator canal
    tibia the bone on the medial side of the leg the tibia is the weight-bearing bone of the leg (Latin, tibia = a pipe or flute, or the large shin bone. Primitive musical instruments were made from reeds, horns, and other things, including the shin bones of birds and other animals)
    soleal line a ridge of bone that descends obliquely from lateral to medial on the posterior surface of the tibia it is the site of origin of the soleus m.
    tarsal bones the bones of the ankle there are seven tarsal bones: talus, calcaneus, navicular, medial cuneiform, intermediate cuneiform, lateral cuneiform, cuboid
    talus the most proximal of the tarsal bones the talus articulates with the medial malleolus of the tibia and the lateral malleolus of the fibula to form the ankle mortise joint (Latin, talus = ankle bone)
    body the proximal part of the talus its superior (trochlear) part participates in the ankle joint and its inferior part articulates with the calcaneus
    trochlea the superior portion of the body of the talus that lies between the two malleoli it has a smooth articular surface; it participates in the formation of the ankle joint (Latin, trochlea = pulley)
    head the portion of the talus that projects anteriorly it articulates with the navicular bone
    neck the constricted part of the talus located proximal to the head
    calcaneus the tarsal bone which forms the heel it is the largest and strongest bone in the foot; a fracture of the calcaneus which separates the tuberosity from the body can be a debilitating injury (Latin, calcis = heel)
    calcaneal tuberosity the posterior roughened area of the calcaneus which contacts the ground during weight-bearing it is the insertion site of the calcaneal (Achilles') tendon
    sustentaculum tali the shelf-like medial projection of bone located inferior to the medial malleolus it is a shelf of bone that articulates with and supports the talus; it is grooved inferiorly by the tendon of the flexor hallucis longus m. (Latin, sustento = to hold upright)
    navicular the tarsal bone located distal to the talus and proximal to the three cuneiform bones it articulates with the head of the talus and all three cuneiform bones; it is the attachment site for an important ligament (plantar calcaneonavicular or "spring" ligament) that supports the medial longitudinal arch of the foot (Latin, navicular = small boat shaped structure)
    cuneiform, medial the most medial bone in the distal row of tarsal bones the cuneiform bones articulate with the navicular bone proximally and the bases of the metatarsal bones distally
    cuneiform, middle the intermediate bone of the three cuneiform bones the cuneiform bones articulate with the navicular bone proximally and the bases of the metatarsal bones distally
    cuneiform, lateral the bone that is located between the middle cuneiform and the cuboid bone the cuneiform bones articulate with the navicular bone proximally and the bases of the metatarsal bones distally
    cuboid the most lateral bone in the distal row of tarsal bones the cuboid bone articulates with the calcaneus proximally and the fourth and fifth metatarsal bones distally
    metatarsals the bones located between the tarsal bones and the phalanges there are five metatarsal bones in the foot
    base the proximal end of the metatarsal it articulates with the distal row of tarsal bones
    body the slender shaft of the metatarsal it is also known as the diaphysis
    head the rounded distal end of the metatarsal it articulates with the proximal phalanx of the corresponding digit
    phalanx (phalanges) the distal two or three bones in the digits of the foot there are a total of 14 phalanges in the foot; the great toe has two phalanges (proximal and distal) and each of the other four toes has three phalanges (proximal, middle and distal); (Latin, phalanx = line of soldiers)
    base the proximal end of the phalanx the base of the proximal phalanx articulates with the head of the corresponding metatarsal bone; the base of the middle or distal phalanx articulates with the head of the next most proximal phalanx
    body the slender shaft of the phalanx also known as the diaphysis; the body of the distal phalanx is very short
    head the distal end of the phalanx the proximal, middle and distal phalanges each have a head; the head of a proximal or middle phalanx articulates with the base of the next most distal phalanx

    Ligaments
    Ligaments Description Significance
    sacrospinous ligament the ligament that connects the ischial spine to the lateral surface of the sacrum and coccyx together with the sacrotuberous ligament, it converts the greater and lesser sciatic notches into greater and lesser sciatic foramina
    sacrotuberous ligament the ligament that connects the ischial tuberosity to the lateral surface of the sacrum and coccyx together with sacrospinous ligament, it converts the greater and lesser sciatic notches into greater and lesser sciatic foramina

    Muscles
    Muscle Origin Insertion Action Innervation Notes
    gluteus maximus posterior gluteal line, posterior sacrum and coccyx, sacrotuberous ligament upper fibers: iliotibial tract; lowermost fibers: gluteal tuberosity of femur extends thigh and trunk, laterally rotates femur inferior gluteal nerve inferior gluteal artery and superficial branch of superior gluteal artery supply gluteus maximus (Greek, gloutos = buttock)
    gluteus medius ilium between posterior and anterior gluteal lines greater trochanter of femur abducts and medially rotates thigh superior gluteal nerve (Greek, gloutos = buttock)
    gluteus minimus ilium between anterior and inferior gluteal lines greater trochanter of femur abducts and medially rotates thigh superior gluteal nerve (Greek, gloutos = buttock)
    tensor fasciae latae anterior part of iliac crest, anterior superior iliac spine iliotibial tract flexes, abducts, and medially rotates the thigh superior gluteal nerve none
    piriformis anterior surface of sacrum upper border of greater trochanter of femur laterally rotates and abducts thigh ventral rami of S1-S2 piriformis leaves the pelvis by passing through the greater sciatic foramen (Latin, piriformis = pear shaped)
    obturator internus margin of obturator foramen and internal surface of obturator membrane greater trochanter, medial surface above the trochanteric fossa laterally rotates and abducts thigh nerve to obturator internus (L5,S1-2) obturator internus leaves the pelvis by passing through the lesser sciatic foramen
    gemellus, superior ischial spine obturator internus tendon laterally rotates the femur nerve to obturator internus (Latin, gemellus = little twin)
    gemellus, inferior ischial tuberosity obturator internus tendon laterally rotates the femur nerve to quadratus femoris (Latin, gemellus = little twin)
    quadratus femoris lateral border of ischial tuberosity quadrate line below intertrochanter crest laterally rotates thigh nerve to quadratus femoris nerve to quadratus femoris also innervates inferior gemellus m. (Latin, quadratus = square)
    biceps femoris long head: ischial tuberosity; short head: lateral lip of linea aspera head of fibula and lateral condyle of the tibia extends thigh, flexes leg long head: tibial nerve; short head: common fibular (peroneal) nerve none
    semitendinosus lower, medial surface of ischial tuberosity (common tendon with biceps femoris m.) medial surface of tibia (via pes anserinus) extends thigh, flexes leg tibial nerve pes anserinus is the common insertion for the gracilis, sartorius, and semitendinosus mm.
    semimembranosus upper, outer surface of ischial tuberosity medial condyle of tibia extends thigh, flexes leg tibial nerve none
    gastrocnemius femur; medial head: above medial femoral condyle; lateral head: above lateral femoral condyle dorsum of calcaneus via calcaneal (Achilles') tendon flexes leg, plantarflexes foot tibial nerve the calcaneal tendon of gastrocnemius & soleus is the thickest & strongest tendon in the body (Greek, gaster = belly + kneme = leg, the calf of the leg)
    plantaris above lateral femoral condyle (above lateral head of gastrocnemius) dorsum of calcaneus medial to calcaneal tendon flexes leg, plantarflexes foot tibial nerve none
    soleus posterior surface of head & upper shaft of fibula, soleal line of tibia dorsum of calcaneus via the calcaneal (Achilles') tendon plantarflexes foot tibial nerve soleus and the 2 heads of gastrocnemius are sometimes called the triceps surae muscle (Latin, soleus = sole of the foot)
    popliteus lateral condyle of femur (via a round tendon) posterior surface of tibia above soleal line flexes and rotates leg medially (with foot planted, rotates thigh laterally) tibial nerve popliteus unlocks the knee joint to initiate flexion of the leg (Latin, poples = the back of the knee)
    flexor hallucis longus lower two/thirds of posterior surface of fibula base of distal phalanx of hallux flexes metatarsophalangeal and proximal interphalangeal joints of hallux; plantarflexes foot tibial nerve flexor hallucis longus is very important in the "push off" part of the normal gait (Latin, hallex = great toe)
    flexor digitorum longus middle half of posterior surface of tibia bases of distal phalanges of digits 2-5 flexes metatarsophalangeal, proximal interphalangeal and distal interphalangeal joints of digits 2-5; plantarflexes foot tibial nerve flexor digitorum longus in the leg is equivalent to the flexor digitorum profundus m. of the arm
    tibialis posterior interosseous membrane, posteromedial surface of fibula, posterolateral surface of tibia tuberosity of navicular & medial cuneiform, metatarsals 2-4 plantarflexes foot and inverts foot tibial nerve acts as both an antagonist (dorsiflexion/plantar flexion) and a synergist (inversion) of tibialis anterior

    Nerves
    Nerve Source Branches Motor Sensory Notes
    sacral plexus lumbosacral trunk (ventral primary rami of L4-L5), ventral primary rami of S1-S4 superior & inferior gluteal nn., n. to obturator internus, n. to quadratus femoris, sciatic n., n. to piriformis, posterior femoral cutaneous n., pudendal n., n. to pelvic diaphragm, pelvic splanchnic nn. mm. of pelvic & urogenital diaphragm, posterior hip, posterior thigh, leg & foot skin of perineum, posterior thigh, leg & foot (excluding medial side of leg & foot) (Latin, plexus = a braid, a network of nerves, blood vessels or lymphatic vessels)
    gluteal, inferior sacral plexus (ventral primary rami of L5, S1-S2) gluteus maximus passes through greater sciatic foramen inferior to piriformis m.
    gluteal, superior sacral plexus (ventral primary rami of L4-L5, S1) superior & inferior brs. gluteus medius & minimus, tensor fasciae latae passes through greater sciatic foramen superior to piriformis m.
    sciatic sacral plexus (ventral primary rami of L4-L5, S1-S3) tibial, common fibular (peroneal) (via its tibial & common fibular branches) semitendinosus, semimembranosus, biceps femoris, ischioconylar part of adductor magnus, muscles of leg & foot skin of leg & foot (excluding medial side of leg & foot) sciatic has no direct muscular brs., only 2 terminal brs. - tibial & common fibular nn.
    fibular, common sciatic lateral sural cutaneous, superficial and deep fibular nn. short head of biceps femoris; superficial fibular br.: muscles of lateral compartment of leg (fibularis longus and brevis mm.); deep fibular br.: mm. of anterior compartment of leg (tibialis anterior, extensor hallucis longus, extensor digitorum longus, fibularis tertius); mm. of dorsum of foot (extensor digitorum brevis and extensor hallucis brevis) superficial fibular: distal 1/3 of anterior leg; dorsum of foot excluding web between great toe and 2nd toe and distal interphalangeal segments of all toes; deep fibular: skin of the web between great and 2nd toes peroneal is old terminology which has been replaced by fibular
    tibial sciatic medial sural cutaneous, medial calcaneal brs., medial & lateral plantar nn. semimembranosus, semitendinosus, long head of biceps femoris, ischiocondylar portion of adductor magnus; mm. of superficial and deep posterior compartments of leg (gastrocnemius, soleus, plantaris, tibialis posterior, flexor hallucis longus, flexor digitorum longus); muscles of plantar side of the foot
    pudendal sacral plexus (ventral primary rami of S2-S4) inferior rectal n., perineal n., dorsal n. of clitoris/penis its branches supply: external anal sphincter, bulbospongiosus, ischiocavernosus, superficial & deep transverse perineus, sphincter urethrae, sphincter urethrovaginalis, compressor urethrae its branches supply: skin of anus, posterior scrotum/labum majus, clitoris/penis passes through pudendal canal formed by fascia on the medial surface of the obturator internus m. ( Latin, pudendus = ashamed, the term referred to "the shameful parts".)
    to obturator internus sacral plexus (ventral primary rami of L5, S1-S2) obturator internus, superior gemellus
    to quadratus femoris sacral plexus (ventral primary rami of L4-L5, S1) quadratus femoris, inferior gemellus

    Arteries
    Artery Source Branches Supply Notes
    gluteal, inferior internal iliac, anterior division gluteus maximus, hip joint participates in the formation of the cruciate anastomoses of the hip (Greek, gloutos = buttock)
    gluteal, superior internal iliac, posterior division superficial br., deep br. gluteus maximus, medius & minimus, hip joint
    internal pudendal internal iliac a., anterior division inferior rectal a., perineal a., artery of the bulb of the clitoris/penis, urethral a., deep clitoral/penile a., dorsal clitoral/penile a. anus, muscles of the superficial and deep perineal spaces, clitoris/penis, posterior aspect of the scrotum/labium majus internal pudendal a. is the primary blood supply to the perineum ( Latin, pudendus = ashamed, the term referred to "the shameful parts".)
    femoral, deep femoral medial & lateral circumflex femoral aa., perforating aa. (~3 or 4) hip joint, proximal thigh, posterior thigh the primary blood supply to muscles of the posterior compartment of the thigh
    popliteal femoral a. anterior tibial a., posterior tibial a., 5 genicular brs. knee, leg and foot the popliteal a. is the continuation of the femoral a.; the name change occurs at the adductor hiatus (Latin, poples = the back of the knee)
    genicular, middle popliteal cruciate ligaments & deep structures of knee anastomoses with other genicular brs. of popliteal a., circumflex fibular a. & anterior tibial recurrent a. to form genicular anastomosis (Latin, genicular = to bend around the knee)
    genicular, superior lateral popliteal lateral aspect of knee anastomoses with other genicular brs. of popliteal a., circumflex fibular a. & anterior tibial recurrent a. to form genicular anastomosis (Latin, genicular = to bend around the knee)
    genicular, superior medial popliteal medial aspect of knee anastomoses with other genicular brs. of popliteal a., circumflex fibular a. & anterior tibial recurrent a. to form genicular anastomosis (Latin, genicular = to bend around the knee)
    tibial, posterior popliteal fibular (peroneal), circumflex fibular, nutrient a. of tibia, communicating br., posterior medial malleolar brs., medial calcaneal brs., lateral & medial plantar aa. posterior & lateral leg, plantar aspect of foot posterior tibial bifurcates on the medial side of the foot to give rise to the medial and lateral plantar aa.
    fibular posterior tibial nutrient br., lateral malleolar br., communicating br., perforating br. lateral leg & ankle anastomoses at ankle with anterior & posterior tibial aa.
    tibial, anterior popliteal anterior & posterior tibial recurrent; anterior, medial & lateral malleolar; dorsalis pedis anterior leg, dorsal & deep foot anterior tibial a. becomes continuous with the dorsalis pedis a.; name change occurs at the level of the ankle joint

    Veins
    Vein Tributaries Drains Into Region Drained Notes
    popliteal anterior & posterior tibial vv., lesser saphenous v. continues as femoral v. foot & leg lies posterior to popliteal a. within popliteal fossa

    Topographic Anatomy
    Structure/Space Boundaries/Description Significance
    greater sciatic foramen the passageway for structures entering or leaving the pelvis the piriformis m. occupies this space along with all lower limb vessels and nerves entering the gluteal region
    lateral compartment (gluteal), thigh located posterolateral to hip joint contains: tensor fasciae latae m., gluteus maximus, medius & minimis mm., piriformis m., superior & inferior gemellus mm., quadratus femoris m.; obturator internus tendon
    lesser sciatic foramen the passageway for structures entering or leaving the perineum
    posterior compartment (hamstring), thigh located posterior to femur contains: semimembranosus, semitendinosus, biceps femoris mm.; sciatic nerve
    popliteal fossa superomedial - tendons of semimembranosus & semitendinosus, superolateral - tendon of biceps femoris, inferior - medial & lateral heads of gastrocnemius contains: popliteal a. & v. and their branches; tibial and common fibular nn.; popliteus m. (Latin, poples = the back of the knee)
    sacroiliac joint the articulation between the ala of the sacrum and the auricular surface of the ilium a synovial joint; the fibrous articular capsule is thickened dorsally and ventrally to form the sacroiliac ligaments; because of the interlocking nature of the joint surfaces and the strong sacroiliac ligaments, only limited movement is permitted at the sacroiliac joint
    posterior compartment (flexor), leg tibia, fibula, interosseous membrane, posterior intermuscular septum contains: superficially - gastrocnemius, soleus, plantaris mm.; deeply - popliteus, tibialis posterior, flexor digitorum longus, flexor hallucis longus mm.; also contains posterior tibial vessels & tibial n.
    fascia, crural deep fascia forming tubular investment of leg continuous with fascia lata at knee; connected to fibula by anterior & posterior intermuscular septa; thickened near ankle as extensor & flexor retinacula (Latin, crural = the legs)
    flexor retinaculum a band of deep fascia that extends from the tip of the medial malleolus to the calcaneus binds, in order anteromedial to posterolateral, tendon of tibialis posterior, flexor digitorum longus, posterior tibial artery and vein, tibial nerve, and tendon of flexor hallucis longus(Latin, retinaculum = a band or halter)

    Lymphatics
    Structure Location Afferents from Efferents to Regions drained Notes
    popliteal nodes popliteal fossa along popliteal vessels deep & superficial inguinal nodes leg & foot (Latin, poples = the back of the knee)

    Clinical Terms
    Term Definition
    sciatica A syndrome characterized by pain radiating from the back into the buttock and into the lower extremity along its posterior or lateral aspect and most commonly caused by prolapse of the intervertebral disk; the term is also used to refer to pain anywhere along the course of the sciatic nerve.
    avascular necrosis Loss of the arterial supply to an epiphysis or other parts of a bone resulting in death of bone tissue
    hip prosthesis replacement for a hip joint
    Trendelenburg sign/gluteal gait When a person with paralysis of the superior gluteal nerve is asked to stand on one leg, the pelvis on the unsupported side descends indicating that the gluteus medius on the supported side is weak or nonfunctional. This clinical observation is a positive Trendelenburg sign.
    ischial bursitis recurrent microtrauma (i.e. from cycling) results in inflammation of the bursa; calcification in the bursa may occur with chronic bursitis. Localized pain occurs over the bursa, and the pain increases with movement of the gluteal maximus. Ischial bursitis ("weaver's bottom") is a friction bursitis resulting from excessive friction between the ischial bursae and ischial tuberosities.
    trochanteric bursitis Often results from repetitive actions such as climbing stairs when carrying heavy objects or running on a steeply elevated treadmill. These movements involve the gluteus maximus and move the superior tendinous fibers repeatedly back and forth over the bursa of the greater trochanter. Trochanteric bursitis causes deep diffuse pain in the lateral thigh region. This type of friction bursitis is characterized by point tenderness over the greater trochanter. The pain radiates along the iliotibial tract that extends from the iliac tubercle to the tibia. The thickening of the fascia lata receives tendinous reinforcements from the tensor of the fascia lata and the gluteus maximus. The pain from an inflamed trochanteric bursa, usually localized just posterior to the greater trochanter, is usually elicited by manually resisting abduction and lateral rotation of the thigh while the person is lying on the unaffected side.
    popliteal artery aneurysm popliteal aneurysm usually causes edema and pain in the popliteal fossa. If the femoral artery has to be ligated, blood can bypass the occlusion through the genicular anastomoses and reach the popliteal artery distal to the ligation. (Greek, aneurysma/aneurysm = to dilate or widen)


    The material presented in these tables is contained in the book:
    MedCharts Anatomy by Thomas R. Gest & Jaye Schlesinger
    Published by ILOC, Inc., New York
    Copyright © 1995, unauthorized use prohibited.
    The excellent editorial assistance of
    Dr. Pat Tank, UAMS
    is gratefully acknowledged.


    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------



    Copyright© 2000 The University of Michigan. Unauthorized use prohibited. Home | Help | Feedback | Contact | Credits

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    Medical Gross Anatomy
    Anatomy Tables - Arteries of the Lower Limb

    Artery Source Branches Supply to Notes
    anterior lateral malleolar anterior tibial a. no named branches lateral side of the ankle anterior lateral malleolar a. anastomoses with the posterior lateral malleolar a. and the perforating br. of the fibular a.
    anterior medial malleolar anterior tibial a. no named branches medial side of the ankle anterior medial malleolar a. anastomoses with the posterior medial malleolar a.
    anterior tibial popliteal a. anterior tibial recurrent a., posterior tibial recurrent a., anterior malleolar a., medial malleolar a., lateral malleolar a., dorsalis pedis a. anterior leg; dorsum of foot and deep foot anterior tibial a. becomes continuous with the dorsalis pedis a.; the name change occurs at the level of the ankle joint
    anterior tibial recurrent anterior tibial a. no named branches anterior side of the knee and adjacent muscles anterior tibial recurrent a. anastomoses with the genicular aa. to participate in the formation of the genicular anastomosis
    aorta, abdominal the continuation of the descending thoracic aorta inferior phrenic aa. (2), celiac trunk, middle suprarenal aa. (2), lumbar aa. (4 pairs), superior mesenteric a., renal aa. (2), testicular/ovarian aa. (2), inferior mesenteric a., median sacral a., common iliac aa. (2) abdominal wall; gastrointestinal tract; body below the level of the respiratory diaphragm abdominal aorta passes posterior to the diaphragm (aortic hiatus) at the level of the T12 vertebral body
    arch, plantar arterial lateral plantar a. plantar metatarsal aa. (4) deep foot; its plantar metatarsal brs. and their brs. supply the toes, including the dorsum of the distal phalangeal segment plantar arterial arch anastomoses with the deep plantar br. of the dorsalis pedis a.
    arcuate dorsalis pedis a. dorsal metatarsal aa. (3) dorsum of the foot, excluding the pollex and the distal phalangeal segments of the digits arcuate a. anastomoses with the lateral tarsal a.
    circumflex femoral, lateral deep femoral a. ascending br., transverse br., descending br. lateral thigh and hip lateral circumflex femoral a. arises from the femoral a. in ~14% of cases
    circumflex femoral, medial deep femoral a. ascending br., descending br. medial thigh and hip medial circumflex femoral a. arises from the femoral a. in ~20% of cases
    circumflex fibular anterior tibial unnamed muscular branches proximal portion of lateral leg arises from the tibial a. before the tibial a. pierces the interosseous membrane
    circumflex iliac, superficial femoral a. unnamed muscular branches superficial fascia of lower abdomen and thigh superficial circumflex iliac a. crosses the upper thigh parallel to the inguinal ligament
    deep external pudendal femoral a. unnamed muscular branches origins of pectineus m., adductor longus m.; scrotum/labium majus deep external pudendal a. may arise from the medial circumflex femoral a.
    deep femoral femoral a. medial circumflex femoral a., lateral circumflex femoral a., perforating aa. (3 or 4) hip joint, proximal thigh, posterior thigh deep femoral a. is the primary blood supply to muscles of the posterior compartment of the thigh
    deep plantar dorsalis pedis plantar metatarsal aa. (4) deep foot; its plantar metatarsal brs. and their brs. supply the toes, including the dorsum of the distal phalangeal segment anastomoses with lateral plantar a. to form the plantar arterial arch; the branches mentioned at left arise from the plantar arterial arch
    descending genicular femoral a. saphenous br., articular brs. skin and superficial structures of the medial aspect of the knee and upper leg descending genicular a. anastomoses with the genicular brs. of the popliteal a.
    digital, proper plantar plantar metatarsal a., from the plantar arterial arch no named branches plantar aspect of each digit proper plantar digital aa. supply the dorsum of the distal phalangeal segment and nail bed
    dorsal digital, of foot dorsal metatarsal a. no named branches dorsal aspect of 1/2 digit, excluding the distal phalangeal segment dorsal digital aa. do not supply the nail bed
    dorsal metatarsal dorsalis pedis (1st), arcuate (2nd-4th) dorsal digital aa. (2) dorsum of digits, excluding the distal phalangeal segment each dorsal metatarsal a. gives off a perforating br. that anastomoses with the plantar arterial arch
    dorsalis pedis anterior tibial a. lateral tarsal a., medial tarsal a., arcuate a., 1st dorsal metatarsal a., deep plantar a. dorsal aspect of the foot; dorsalis pedis a. anastomoses with the plantar arterial arch; the anterior tibial artery continues as the dorsalis pedis - the name change occurs at the level of the ankle
    external iliac common iliac a. inferior epigastric a., deep circumflex iliac a., femoral a. lower limb external iliac a. is continuous with the femoral a., the name change occurs at the inguinal ligament; the common iliac artery bifurcates anterior to the sacroiliac articulation
    external pudendal, deep femoral a. unnamed muscular branches origins of pectineus m., adductor longus m.; scrotum/labium majus deep external pudendal a. may arise from the medial circumflex femoral a.
    external pudendal, superficial femoral a. no named branches skin and superficial fascia of the upper medial thigh, skin of the pubic region superficial external pudendal a. is one of three superficial branches of the femoral a. near the inguinal ligament (see also: superficial circumflex iliac a., superficial epigastric a.)
    femoral external iliac a. superficial epigastric a., superficial circumflex iliac a., superficial external pudendal a., deep external pudendal a., deep femoral a., descending genicular a., popliteal a. thigh, leg and foot femoral a. is continuous with the popliteal a., the name change occurs at the adductor hiatus
    femoral, deep femoral a. medial circumflex femoral a., lateral circumflex femoral a., perforating aa. (3 or 4) hip joint, proximal thigh, posterior thigh deep femoral a. is the primary blood supply to muscles of the posterior compartment of the thigh
    femoral, lateral circumflex deep femoral a. ascending br., transverse br., descending br. lateral thigh and hip lateral circumflex femoral a. arises from the femoral a. in ~14% of cases
    femoral, medial circumflex deep femoral a. ascending br., descending br. medial thigh and hip medial circumflex femoral a. arises from the femoral a. in ~20% of cases
    fibular posterior tibial a. nutrient br., lateral malleolar a., communicating br., perforating br. muscles and fascia of the lateral leg ankle fibular a. anastomoses at the ankle with the anterior and posterior tibial aa.; also known as: peroneal a.
    genicular, descending femoral a. saphenous br., articular brs. skin and superficial structures of the medial aspect of the knee and upper leg descending genicular a. anastomoses with the genicular brs. of the popliteal a.
    genicular, inferior lateral popliteal a. no named branches lateral aspect of the knee inferior lateral genicular a. anastomoses with the other genicular brs. of the popliteal a., circumflex fibular a. and anterior tibial recurrent a. to form the genicular anastomosis
    genicular, inferior medial popliteal a. no named branches medial aspect of the knee inferior medial genicular a. anastomoses with the other genicular brs. of the popliteal a., circumflex fibular a. and anterior tibial recurrent a. to form the genicular anastomosis
    genicular, middle popliteal a. no named branches cruciate ligaments and deep structures of the knee middle genicular a. anastomoses with the other genicular brs. of the popliteal a., circumflex fibular a. and anterior tibial recurrent a. to form the genicular anastomosis
    genicular, superior lateral popliteal a. no named branches lateral aspect of knee superior lateral genicular a. anastomoses with the other genicular brs. of the popliteal a., circumflex fibular a. and anterior tibial recurrent a. to form the genicular anastomosis
    genicular, superior medial popliteal a. no named branches medial aspect of knee superior medial genicular a. anastomoses with the other genicular brs. of the popliteal a., circumflex fibular a. and anterior tibial recurrent a. to form the genicular anastomosis
    gluteal, inferior internal iliac a., anterior division unnamed muscular branches gluteus maximus m., hip joint inferior gluteal a. participates in the formation of the cruciate anastomoses of the hip
    gluteal, superior internal iliac, posterior division superficial br., deep br. gluteus maximus m., gluteus medius m., gluteus minimus m., hip joint superior gluteal a. participates in the formation of the cruciate anastomoses of the hip
    iliac, common abdominal aorta external iliac a., internal iliac a. pelvis, lower limb abdominal aorta bifurcates at the level of the L4 vertebral body to form the right and left common iliac aa.; the common iliac artery bifurcates anterior to the sacroiliac articulation into its terminal brs. (external iliac a. and internal iliac a.)
    iliac, external common iliac a. inferior epigastric a., deep circumflex iliac a., femoral a. lower limb external iliac a. is continuous with the femoral a., the name change occurs at the inguinal ligament; the common iliac artery bifurcates anterior to the sacroiliac articulation
    iliolumbar internal iliac a., posterior division iliac br., lumbar br. iliacus m., psoas major m., quadratus lumborum m. lumbar br. of the iliolumbar a. sends a small spinal br. into the vertebral canal
    inferior epigastric external iliac a. cremasteric a. lower rectus abdominis m., pyramidalis m., lower abdominal wall inferior epigastric m. anastomoses with the superior epigastric m. within the rectus abdominis m.
    inferior gluteal internal iliac a., anterior division unnamed muscular branches gluteus maximus m., hip joint inferior gluteal a. participates in the formation of the cruciate anastomoses of the hip
    inferior lateral genicular popliteal a. no named branches lateral aspect of the knee inferior lateral genicular a. anastomoses with the other genicular brs. of the popliteal a., circumflex fibular a. and anterior tibial recurrent a. to form the genicular anastomosis
    inferior medial genicular popliteal a. no named branches medial aspect of the knee inferior medial genicular a. anastomoses with the other genicular brs. of the popliteal a., circumflex fibular a. and anterior tibial recurrent a. to form the genicular anastomosis
    lateral plantar posterior tibial a. proper plantar digital a. to lateral side of 5th digit deep foot; the plantar arterial arch and its brs. supply the toes, including the distal phalangeal segment dorsally lateral plantar a. becomes continuous with the plantar arterial arch
    lateral tarsal dorsalis pedis a. no named branches tarsal bones and joints of the lateral foot lateral tarsal a. anastomoses with the arcuate a.
    lumbar abdominal aorta anterior br., posterior br., spinal br. psoas major m., psoas minor m., quadratus lumborum m., spinal cord and vertebral column, deep back muscles the 4 lumbar arteries on each side arise from the posterior surface of the aorta at the level of vertebrae L1-L4; they course posterior to the psoas major m.
    malleolar, anterior lateral anterior tibial a. no named branches lateral side of the ankle anterior lateral malleolar a. anastomoses with the posterior lateral malleolar a. and the perforating br. of the fibular a.
    malleolar, anterior medial anterior tibial a. no named branches medial side of the ankle anterior medial malleolar a. anastomoses with the posterior medial malleolar a.
    malleolar, posterior lateral fibular a. calcaneal brs. lateral side of the ankle posterior lateral malleolar a. anastomoses with the anterior lateral malleolar a.
    malleolar, posterior medial posterior tibial a. no named branches medial side of the ankle posterior medial malleolar a. anastomoses with the anterior medial malleolar a.
    medial plantar posterior tibial a. digital brs. (3) medial side of the sole of the foot medial plantar a. anastomoses with the plantar metatarsal aa., but does not usually participate in formation of the plantar arterial arch
    medial tarsal dorsalis pedis a. no named branches tarsal bones and joints of the medial side of the foot medial tarsal aa. are 2-3 in number; they anastomose with the medial malleolar aa.
    metatarsal, dorsal dorsalis pedis (1st), arcuate (2nd-4th) dorsal digital aa. (2) dorsum of digits, excluding the distal phalangeal segment each dorsal metatarsal a. gives off a perforating br. that anastomoses with the plantar arterial arch
    metatarsal, plantar plantar arterial arch perforating br., plantar digital aa. (2) interosseous mm., deep portions of the foot; digits including the dorsum of the distal phalangeal segment plantar metatarsal aa.anastomose with dorsal metatarsal aa.
    middle genicular popliteal a. no named branches cruciate ligaments and deep structures of the knee middle genicular a. anastomoses with the other genicular brs. of the popliteal a., circumflex fibular a. and anterior tibial recurrent a. to form the genicular anastomosis
    obturator internal iliac a., anterior division pubic br., acetabular br., anterior br., posterior br. medial thigh and hip anterior and posterior brs. pass on the anterior and posterior sides of the adductor brevis m.; aberrant obturator a. arises from the inferior epigastric a. in 30% of cases
    plantar arterial arch lateral plantar a. plantar metatarsal aa. (4) deep foot; its plantar metatarsal brs. and their brs. supply the toes, including the dorsum of the distal phalangeal segment plantar arterial arch anastomoses with the deep plantar br. of the dorsalis pedis a.
    plantar metatarsal plantar arterial arch perforating br., plantar digital aa. (2) interosseous mm., deep portions of the foot; digits including the dorsum of the distal phalangeal segment plantar metatarsal aa.anastomose with dorsal metatarsal aa.
    plantar, deep dorsalis pedis plantar metatarsal aa. (4) deep foot; its plantar metatarsal brs. and their brs. supply the toes, including the dorsum of the distal phalangeal segment anastomoses with lateral plantar a. to form the plantar arterial arch; the branches mentioned at left arise from the plantar arterial arch
    plantar, lateral posterior tibial a. proper plantar digital a. to lateral side of 5th digit deep foot; the plantar arterial arch and its brs. supply the toes, including the distal phalangeal segment dorsally lateral plantar a. becomes continuous with the plantar arterial arch
    plantar, medial posterior tibial a. digital brs. (3) medial side of the sole of the foot medial plantar a. anastomoses with the plantar metatarsal aa., but does not usually participate in formation of the plantar arterial arch
    popliteal femoral a. anterior tibial a., posterior tibial a., 5 genicular brs. knee, leg and foot the popliteal a. is the continuation of the femoral a., the name change occurs at the adductor hiatus
    posterior lateral malleolar fibular a. calcaneal brs. lateral side of the ankle posterior lateral malleolar a. anastomoses with the anterior lateral malleolar a.
    posterior medial malleolar posterior tibial a. no named branches medial side of the ankle posterior medial malleolar a. anastomoses with the anterior medial malleolar a.
    posterior tibial popliteal a. fibular a. (peroneal), circumflex fibular a., nutrient a. of the tibia, communicating br., posterior medial malleolar brs., medial calcaneal brs., lateral plantar a., medial plantar a. posterior and lateral leg, plantar aspect of the foot posterior tibial a. is the direct continuation of the popliteal a. the name change occurs at the inferior border of the popliteus m. where the popliteal a. bifurcates; the tibial a. bifurcates on the medial side of the foot to give rise to the medial plantar a. and lateral plantar a.
    posterior tibial recurrent anterior tibial a. no named branches posterior knee, popliteus m. anastomoses with the other genicular aa. to participate in the formation of the genicular anastomosis
    proper plantar digital plantar metatarsal a., from the plantar arterial arch no named branches plantar aspect of each digit proper plantar digital aa. supply the dorsum of the distal phalangeal segment and nail bed
    pudendal, deep external femoral a. unnamed muscular branches origins of pectineus m., adductor longus m.; scrotum/labium majus deep external pudendal a. may arise from the medial circumflex femoral a.
    pudendal, superficial external femoral a. no named branches skin and superficial fascia of the upper medial thigh, skin of the pubic region superficial external pudendal a. is one of three superficial branches of the femoral a. near the inguinal ligament (see also: superficial circumflex iliac a., superficial epigastric a.)
    recurrent, anterior tibial anterior tibial a. no named branches anterior side of the knee and adjacent muscles anterior tibial recurrent a. anastomoses with the genicular aa. to participate in the formation of the genicular anastomosis
    recurrent, posterior tibial anterior tibial a. no named branches posterior knee, popliteus m. anastomoses with the other genicular aa. to participate in the formation of the genicular anastomosis
    superficial epigastric femoral a. cutaneous brs. superficial fascia and skin of the lower abdominal wall superficial epigastric a. is one of three superficial arteries that arise from the femoral a. (see also: superficial circumflex iliac a. and superficial external pudendal a.)
    superficial external pudendal femoral a. no named branches skin and superficial fascia of the upper medial thigh, skin of the pubic region superficial external pudendal a. is one of three superficial branches of the femoral a. near the inguinal ligament (see also: superficial circumflex iliac a., superficial epigastric a.)
    superior lateral genicular popliteal a. no named branches lateral aspect of knee superior lateral genicular a. anastomoses with the other genicular brs. of the popliteal a., circumflex fibular a. and anterior tibial recurrent a. to form the genicular anastomosis
    superior medial genicular popliteal a. no named branches medial aspect of knee superior medial genicular a. anastomoses with the other genicular brs. of the popliteal a., circumflex fibular a. and anterior tibial recurrent a. to form the genicular anastomosis
    sural popliteal a. unnamed muscular aa. gastrocnemius m., soleus m., plantaris m. sural aa. are often confused with the inferior genicular aa. during dissection
    tarsal, lateral dorsalis pedis a. no named branches tarsal bones and joints of the lateral foot lateral tarsal a. anastomoses with the arcuate a.
    tarsal, medial dorsalis pedis a. no named branches tarsal bones and joints of the medial side of the foot medial tarsal aa. are 2-3 in number; they anastomose with the medial malleolar aa.
    tibial recurrent, anterior anterior tibial a. no named branches anterior side of the knee and adjacent muscles anterior tibial recurrent a. anastomoses with the genicular aa. to participate in the formation of the genicular anastomosis
    tibial recurrent, posterior anterior tibial a. no named branches posterior knee, popliteus m. anastomoses with the other genicular aa. to participate in the formation of the genicular anastomosis
    tibial, anterior popliteal a. anterior tibial recurrent a., posterior tibial recurrent a., anterior malleolar a., medial malleolar a., lateral malleolar a., dorsalis pedis a. anterior leg; dorsum of foot and deep foot anterior tibial a. becomes continuous with the dorsalis pedis a.; the name change occurs at the level of the ankle joint
    tibial, posterior popliteal a. fibular a. (peroneal), circumflex fibular a., nutrient a. of the tibia, communicating br., posterior medial malleolar brs., medial calcaneal brs., lateral plantar a., medial plantar a. posterior and lateral leg, plantar aspect of the foot posterior tibial a. is the direct continuation of the popliteal a. the name change occurs at the inferior border of the popliteus m. where the popliteal a. bifurcates; the tibial a. bifurcates on the medial side of the foot to give rise to the medial plantar a. and lateral plantar a.


    The material presented in these tables is contained in the book:
    MedCharts Anatomy by Thomas R. Gest & Jaye Schlesinger
    Published by ILOC, Inc., New York
    Copyright © 1995, unauthorized use prohibited.
    The excellent editorial assistance of
    Dr. Pat Tank, UAMS
    is gratefully acknowledged.



    Copyright© 2000 The University of Michigan. Unauthorized use prohibited. Home | Help | Feedback | Contact | Credits

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    Medical Gross Anatomy
    Anatomy Tables - Arteries of the Abdomen

    Artery Source Branches Supply to Notes
    anterior cecal ileocolic a. occasionally the appendicular a. cecum anterior cecal a. supplies the ileocecal junction
    anterior inferior pancreaticoduodenal inferior pancreaticoduodenal a. pancreatic brs., duodenal brs. lower duodenum and head of the pancreas anterior inferior pancreaticoduodenal a. anastomoses with the anterior superior pancreaticoduodenal a. to form the anterior pancreatic arcade
    anterior inferior pancreaticoduodenal inferior pancreaticoduodenal a. pancreatic brs., duodenal brs. lower duodendum and head of the pancreas anterior inferior pancreaticoduodenal a. anastomoses with the anterior superior pancreaticoduodenal a. to form the anterior pancreatic arcade
    anterior superior pancreaticoduodenal gastroduodenal a. pancreatic brs., duodenal brs. upper duodenum and head of the pancreas anterior superior pancreaticoduodenal a. anastomoses with the anterior inferior pancreaticoduodenal a. to form the anterior pancreatic arcade
    aorta, abdominal the continuation of the descending thoracic aorta inferior phrenic aa. (2), celiac trunk, middle suprarenal aa. (2), lumbar aa. (4 pairs), superior mesenteric a., renal aa. (2), testicular/ovarian aa. (2), inferior mesenteric a., median sacral a., common iliac aa. (2) abdominal wall; gastrointestinal tract; body below the level of the respiratory diaphragm abdominal aorta passes posterior to the diaphragm (aortic hiatus) at the level of the T12 vertebral body
    appendicular posterior cecal, anterior cecal or ileocolic no named branches vermiform appendix despite its variable origin, appendicular artery is nearly constant in its course posterior to the terminal part of the ileum
    artery of the ductus deferens umbilical a.; may be a branch of the superior or inferior vesical a. no named branches ductus deferens, seminal vesical; possibly supplies the ureter artery of the ductus deferens is also known as: deferential a.
    caudal pancreatic splenic a. numerous small aa. that supply the pancreas tail of the pancreas caudal pancreatic a. enters the tail of the pancreas near the hilum of the spleen; it may arise from the left gastro-omental a.
    cecal, anterior ileocolic a. may give off the appendicular a. anterior surface of the cecum anterior cecal a. supplies the ileocecal junction
    cecal, posterior ileocolic a. may give off the appendicular a. posterior surface of the cecum posterior cecal a. supplies the ileocecal junction
    celiac trunk abdominal aorta at the level of the T12-L1 intervertebral disc left gastric a., splenic a., common hepatic a. stomach, lower esophagus, liver, upper duodenum, pancreas, spleen celiac trunk supplies the foregut derivatives
    circumflex iliac, deep external iliac a. unnamed muscular branches iliacus muscle and the lower abdominal wall deep circumflex iliac a. courses along the iliac crest on the inner surface of the abdominal wall
    circumflex iliac, superficial femoral a. unnamed muscular branches superficial fascia of lower abdomen and thigh superficial circumflex iliac a. crosses the upper thigh parallel to the inguinal ligament
    colic, left inferior mesenteric a. ascending br., descending br. descending colon left colic a. anastomoses with the middle colic a and the sigmoid a.to form part of the marginal a.
    colic, middle superior mesenteric right br., left br. transverse colon middle colic a. anastomoses with the right colic a. and the left colic a. to form part of the marginal a.
    colic, right superior mesenteric (or br. of) ascending br., descending br. ascending colon right colic a. anastomoses with the ileocolic a. and the middle colic a. to form part of the marginal a.
    common hepatic celiac trunk gastroduodenal a., proper hepatic a. liver, upper part of the duodenum, part of the pancreas, part of the stomach common hepatic a. is one of three brs. of the celiac trunk (see also: left gastric a., splenic a.)
    common iliac abdominal aorta external iliac a., internal iliac a. pelvis, lower limb abdominal aorta bifurcates at the level of the L4 vertebral body to form the right and left common iliac aa.; the common iliac artery bifurcates anterior to the sacroiliac articulation into its terminal brs. (external iliac a. and internal iliac a.)
    cremasteric inferior epigastric a. no named branches cremaster m., coverings of the spermatic cord cremasteric a. is one of the contents of the spermatic cord; it anastomoses with the testicular artery distally
    cystic right hepatic a. (or superior mesenteric a., proper hepatic a., left hepatic a., gastroduodenal a.) no named branches gall bladder cystic a. arises from the right hepatic a. in ~72% of cases; other possible origins are noted at left and are clinically relevant during gall bladder surgery
    dorsal pancreatic splenic a. right br., left br. neck of the pancreas right br.of the dorsal pancreatic a. anastomoses with the anterior superior pancreaticoduodenal a. in the prepancreatic arcade
    ductus deferens, artery of umbilical a.; may be a branch of the superior or inferior vesical a. no named branches ductus deferens, seminal vesical; possibly supplies the ureter artery of the ductus deferens is also known as: deferential a.
    epigastric, inferior external iliac a. cremasteric a. lower rectus abdominis m., pyramidalis m., lower abdominal wall inferior epigastric a. anastomoses with the superior epigastric a. within the rectus abdominis m.
    epigastric, superficial femoral a. cutaneous brs. superficial fascia and skin of the lower abdominal wall superficial epigastric a. is one of three superficial arteries that arise from the femoral a. (see also: superficial circumflex iliac a. and superficial external pudendal a.)
    epigastric, superior internal thoracic a. no named branches upper rectus abdominis m., upper abdominal wall superior epigastric a. is the direct continuation of the internal thoracic a.; it s anastomoses with the inferior epigastric a. within the rectus abdominis m.
    esophageal descending thoracic aorta; left gastric a. no named branches lower 2/3rds of the thoracic esophagus there are usually two (sometimes 3) esophageal brs. off of the aorta; the left gastric a. gives esophageal brs. that ascend to supply the abdominal esophagus and lowest part of the thoracic esophagus; anastomoses occur between the esophageal brs. of the aorta and left gastric a.
    gastric, left celiac a. esophageal brs. superior part of the stomach near the lesser curvature left gastric a. anastomoses with the right gastric a. on the lesser curvature of the stomach; it also anastomoses with the esophageal brs. of the thoracic aorta
    gastric, right proper hepatic a. no named branches inferior part of the stomach near the lesser curvature right gastric a. anastomoses with the left gastric a. on the lesser curvature of the stomach
    gastric, short splenic a. no named branches fundus and upper part of the stomach near the greater curvature short gastric aa. reach the stomach by passing through the gastrosplenic ligament; they are usually 4-5 in number
    gastro-omental, left splenic a. gastric brs., omental brs. mid-part of the stomach near the greater curvature; greater omentum left gastro-omental a. anastomoses with the right gastro-omental a. near the greater curvature of the stomach; also known as: left gastroepiploic a.
    gastro-omental, right gastroduodenal a. gastric brs., omental brs. lower part of the pyloric region of the stomach, right part of greater curvature of the stomach, greater omentum right gastro-omental a anastomoses with the left gastro-omental a. near the greater curvature of the stomach; also known as: right gastroepiploic a.
    gastroduodenal common hepatic a. supraduodenal aa., retroduodenal aa., posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal a., anterior superior pancreaticoduodenal a., right gastro-omental a. upper duodenum, upper part of the head of the pancreas; greater curvature of the stomach on the right gastroduodenal a. supplies the lowest portion of the foregut and its derivatives
    great anterior radicular the spinal br. of the lower posterior intercostal a., subcostal a., or upper lumbar a., usually on left no named branches lower spinal cord great anterior radicular a. anastomoses with the anterior spinal a. at lower thoracic or upper lumbar spinal cord levels
    hepatic, common celiac trunk gastroduodenal a., proper hepatic a. liver, upper parts of the duodenum, upper part of the pancreas, right side of the stomach common hepatic a. supplies some of the foregut derivatives
    hepatic, left proper hepatic a. segmental aa. left lobe of the liver, quadrate lobe of the liver, part of the caudate lobe of the liver left hepatic a. supplies the liver parenchyma and stroma; an aberrant left hepatic a. may arise from the left gastric a.
    hepatic, proper common hepatic a. right gastric, right & left hepatic liver, lesser curvature of the stomach proper hepatic a. supplies the foregut derivatives associated with the liver bud
    hepatic, right proper hepatic a. cystic a., segmental aa. right lobe of the liver, part of the caudate lobe of the liver right hepatic a. supplies the liver parenchyma and stroma
    ileocolic superior mesenteric a. colic br., anterior cecal br., posterior cecal br., appendicular a., ileal br. cecum, appendix, terminal portion of the ileum colic br. of the ileocolic a. participates in the formation of the marginal a.
    iliac, common abdominal aorta external iliac a., internal iliac a. pelvis, lower limb abdominal aorta bifurcates at the level of the L4 vertebral body to form the right and left common iliac aa.; the common iliac artery bifurcates anterior to the sacroiliac articulation into its terminal brs. (external iliac a. and internal iliac a.)
    iliac, external common iliac a. inferior epigastric a., deep circumflex iliac a., femoral a. lower limb external iliac a. is continuous with the femoral a., the name change occurs at the inguinal ligament; the common iliac artery bifurcates anterior to the sacroiliac articulation
    iliac, internal common iliac a. anterior division gives rise to the : umbilical a., obturator a., uterine a., vaginal a., inferior vesical a., middle rectal a., internal pudendal a., inferior gluteal a.; posterior division gives rise to the: iliolumbar a., lateral sacral a., superior gluteal a. pelvic viscera, gluteal region, hip, medial thigh common iliac artery bifurcates anterior to the sacroiliac articulation to form the internal iliac a. and the external iliac a.
    iliolumbar internal iliac a., posterior division iliac br., lumbar br. iliacus m., psoas major m., quadratus lumborum m. lumbar br. of the iliolumbar a. sends a small spinal br. into the vertebral canal
    inferior epigastric external iliac a. cremasteric a. lower rectus abdominis m., pyramidalis m., lower abdominal wall inferior epigastric m. anastomoses with the superior epigastric m. within the rectus abdominis m.
    inferior mesenteric abdominal aorta at the level of the L3 vertebral body left colic a., sigmoid aa.(2-3), superior rectal a. splenic flexure, descending colon, sigmoid colon, superior part of rectum branches of the inferior mesenteric a anastomose in the marginal artery
    inferior pancreatic dorsal pancreatic, left br. no named branches lower part of the body of the pancreas inferior pancreatic a. may be imbedded in the substance of the gland
    inferior pancreaticoduodenal superior mesenteric a. anterior inferior pancreaticoduodenal a., posterior inferior pancreaticoduodenal a. lower duodenum, head of the pancreas inferior pancreaticoduodenal a. supplies both the anterior and posterior surfaces of the lower duodenum and lower part of the head of the pancreas
    inferior phrenic abdominal aorta superior suprarenal aa. diaphragm, suprarenal gland inferior phrenic a. is the first abdominal branch of the aorta; it may arise from the celiac trunk
    inferior rectal internal pudendal a. no named branches anus, ischioanal fossa inferior rectal a. anastomoses with the middle rectal a. and the superior rectal a.
    inferior suprarenal renal a. numerous unnamed branches inferior aspect of the suprarenal gland inferior suprarenal a. may anastomose with the superior suprarenal a.
    intercostal, posterior highest intercostal (upper 2 intercostal spaces), descending thoracic aorta (3rd-11th intercostal spaces) posterior br., spinal br., anterior br., collateral br., lateral cutaneous br. intercostal muscles, spinal cord and vertebral column, deep back muscles, skin and superficial fascia overlying the intercostal spaces posterior intercostal aa. supply the lateral and posterior portions of the intercostal space; anterior intercostal aa. supply the anterior portions of the intercostal spaces
    internal iliac common iliac a. anterior division gives rise to the : umbilical a., obturator a., uterine a., vaginal a., inferior vesical a., middle rectal a., internal pudendal a., inferior gluteal a.; posterior division gives rise to the: iliolumbar a., lateral sacral a., superior gluteal a. pelvic viscera, gluteal region, hip, medial thigh common iliac artery bifurcates anterior to the sacroiliac articulation to form the internal iliac a. and the external iliac a.
    intestinal superior mesenteric a. arterial arches jejunum, ileum intestinal aa. are 12-15 in number and are found in the mesentery
    lateral sacral internal iliac a., posterior division spinal brs. sacrum, sacral nerve rootlets, meninges, adjacent muscles there are usually 2 lateral sacral aa. on each side, a superior one and an inferior one
    left colic inferior mesenteric a. ascending br., descending br. descending colon left colic a. anastomoses with the middle colic a and the sigmoid a.to form part of the marginal a.
    left gastric celiac a. esophageal brs. superior part of the stomach near the lesser curvature left gastric a. anastomoses with the right gastric a. on the lesser curvature of the stomach; it also anastomoses with the esophageal brs. of the thoracic aorta
    left gastro-omental splenic a. gastric brs., omental brs. mid-part of the stomach near the greater curvature; greater omentum left gastro-omental a. anastomoses with the right gastro-omental a. near the greater curvature of the stomach; also known as: left gastroepiploic a.
    left hepatic proper hepatic a. segmental aa. left lobe of the liver, quadrate lobe of the liver, part of the caudate lobe of the liver left hepatic a. supplies the liver parenchyma and stroma; an aberrant left hepatic a. may arise from the left gastric a.
    lumbar abdominal aorta anterior br., posterior br., spinal br. psoas major m., psoas minor m., quadratus lumborum m., spinal cord and vertebral column, deep back muscles the 4 lumbar arteries on each side arise from the posterior surface of the aorta at the level of vertebrae L1-L4; they course posterior to the psoas major m.
    marginal formed by anastomoses of branches of the ileocolic a., right colic a., middle colic a., left colic a., sigmoid a. colic brs. colon an important anastomosis for the large intestine
    median sacral abdominal aorta 5th lumbar aa. sacrum median sacral a. appears to be the continuation of the abdominal aorta in the median plane, although it is much smaller in size
    mesenteric, inferior abdominal aorta at the level of the L3 vertebral body left colic a., sigmoid aa.(2-3), superior rectal a. splenic flexure, descending colon, sigmoid colon, superior part of rectum branches of the inferior mesenteric a anastomose in the marginal artery
    mesenteric, superior abdominal aorta at the level of the lower 1/3 of the L1 vertebral body inferior pancreaticoduodenal a., middle colic a., jejunal a., ileal a., right colic a., ileocolic a. inferior part of the head of the pancreas, distal duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, appendix, ascending colon, transverse colon superior mesenteric a. supplies the midgut derivatives; brs. of the superior mesenteric a. participate in formation of the marginal artery
    middle colic superior mesenteric right br., left br. transverse colon middle colic a. anastomoses with the right colic a. and the left colic a. to form part of the marginal a.
    middle rectal internal iliac, anterior division no named branches middle portion of the rectum middle rectal a. anastomoses with the inferior rectal a and the superior rectal a.
    middle suprarenal abdominal aorta numerous unnamed branches medial side of the suprarenal gland middle suprarenal a. anastomoses with the superior suprarenal a. and the inferior suprarenal a.
    musculophrenic internal thoracic a. anterior intercostal aa. anterior diaphragm, anterior aspects of intercostal spaces 7-10 or 11 musculophrenic a. supplies muscles that develop in the septum transversum
    pancreatic, caudal splenic a. numerous small aa. that supply the pancreas tail of the pancreas caudal pancreatic a. enters the tail of the pancreas near the hilum of the spleen; it may arise from the left gastro-omental a.
    pancreatic, dorsal splenic a. right br., left br. neck of the pancreas right br.of the dorsal pancreatic a. anastomoses with the anterior superior pancreaticoduodenal a. in the prepancreatic arcade
    pancreatic, inferior dorsal pancreatic, left br. no named branches lower part of the body of the pancreas inferior pancreatic a. may be imbedded in the substance of the gland
    pancreatic, superior splenic a. no named branches superior part of the body of the pancreas superior pancreatic aa. are multiple small brs. arising from the splenic a.
    pancreatica magna splenic a. numerous unnamed brs. within the pancreas body of the pancreas pancreatic magna is the largest pancreatic branch to arise from the splenic a.; it enters the pancreas at the junction of its middle 1/3 and left 1/3
    pancreaticoduodenal, anterior inferior inferior pancreaticoduodenal a. pancreatic brs., duodenal brs. lower duodenum and head of the pancreas anterior inferior pancreaticoduodenal a. anastomoses with the anterior superior pancreaticoduodenal a. to form the anterior pancreatic arcade
    pancreaticoduodenal, anterior superior gastroduodenal a. pancreatic brs., duodenal brs. upper duodenum and head of the pancreas anterior superior pancreaticoduodenal a. anastomoses with the anterior inferior pancreaticoduodenal a. to form the anterior pancreatic arcade
    pancreaticoduodenal, inferior superior mesenteric a. anterior inferior pancreaticoduodenal a., posterior inferior pancreaticoduodenal a. lower duodenum, head of the pancreas inferior pancreaticoduodenal a. supplies both the anterior and posterior surfaces of the lower duodenum and lower part of the head of the pancreas
    pancreaticoduodenal, posterior inferior inferior pancreaticoduodenal a. pancreatic brs., duodenal brs. lower duodenum and head of the pancreas posterior inferior pancreaticoduodenal a. anastomoses with the posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal a. to form the posterior pancreatic arcade
    pancreaticoduodenal, posterior superior gastroduodenal a. pancreatic brs., duodenal brs. upper duodenum and head of the pancreas posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal a. anastomoses with the posterior inferior pancreaticoduodenal a. to form the posterior pancreatic arcade
    phrenic, inferior abdominal aorta superior suprarenal aa. diaphragm, suprarenal gland inferior phrenic a. is the first abdominal branch of the aorta; it may arise from the celiac trunk
    posterior cecal ileocolic a. may give off the appendicular a. posterior surface of the cecum posterior cecal a. supplies the ileocecal junction
    posterior inferior pancreaticoduodenal inferior pancreaticoduodenal a. pancreatic brs., duodenal brs. lower duodenum and head of the pancreas posterior inferior pancreaticoduodenal a. anastomoses with the posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal a. to form the posterior pancreatic arcade
    posterior intercostal highest intercostal (upper 2 intercostal spaces), descending thoracic aorta (3rd-11th intercostal spaces) posterior br., spinal br., anterior br., collateral br., lateral cutaneous br. intercostal muscles, spinal cord and vertebral column, deep back muscles, skin and superficial fascia overlying the intercostal spaces posterior intercostal aa. supply the lateral and posterior portions of the intercostal space; anterior intercostal aa. supply the anterior portions of the intercostal spaces
    posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal gastroduodenal a. pancreatic brs., duodenal brs. upper duodenum and head of the pancreas posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal a. anastomoses with the posterior inferior pancreaticoduodenal a. to form the posterior pancreatic arcade
    radicular, great anterior the spinal br. of the lower posterior intercostal a., subcostal a., or upper lumbar a., usually on left no named branches lower spinal cord great anterior radicular a. anastomoses with the anterior spinal a. at lower thoracic or upper lumbar spinal cord levels
    rectal, inferior internal pudendal a. no named branches anus, ischioanal fossa inferior rectal a. anastomoses with the middle rectal a. and the superior rectal a.
    rectal, middle internal iliac, anterior division no named branches middle portion of the rectum middle rectal a. anastomoses with the inferior rectal a and the superior rectal a.
    rectal, superior inferior mesenteric a. two unnamed branches superior part of the rectum superior rectal a. is the continuation of the inferior mesenteric a. after the sigmoid brs. are given off; it anastomoses with the middle rectal a. and the inferior rectal a.
    renal abdominal aorta at the level of the upper border of the L2 vertebra inferior suprarenal a., apical segmental a., anterior br: superior anterior segmental a., middle anterior segmental a., inferior segmental a.; posterior br.: posterior segmental a. kidney, upper ureter, suprarenal gland the right renal a. is longer than the left renal artery; the right renal artery passes posterior to the inferior vena cava
    retroduodenal gastroduodenal a. multiple unnamed brs. posterior portion of the 1st part of the duodenum retroduodenal aa. arise as multiple small brs.
    right colic superior mesenteric (or br. of) ascending br., descending br. ascending colon right colic a. anastomoses with the ileocolic a. and the middle colic a. to form part of the marginal a.
    right gastric proper hepatic a. no named branches inferior part of the stomach near the lesser curvature right gastric a. anastomoses with the left gastric a. on the lesser curvature of the stomach
    right gastro-omental gastroduodenal a. gastric brs., omental brs. lower part of the pyloric region of the stomach, right part of greater curvature of the stomach, greater omentum right gastro-omental a anastomoses with the left gastro-omental a. near the greater curvature of the stomach; also known as: right gastroepiploic a.
    right hepatic proper hepatic a. cystic a., segmental aa. right lobe of the liver, part of the caudate lobe of the liver right hepatic a. supplies the liver parenchyma and stroma
    sacral, lateral internal iliac a., posterior division spinal brs. sacrum, sacral nerve rootlets, meninges, adjacent muscles there are usually 2 lateral sacral aa. on each side, a superior one and an inferior one
    sacral, median abdominal aorta 5th lumbar aa. sacrum median sacral a. appears to be the continuation of the abdominal aorta in the median plane, although it is much smaller in size
    short gastric splenic a. no named branches fundus and upper part of the stomach near the greater curvature short gastric aa. reach the stomach by passing through the gastrosplenic ligament; they are usually 4-5 in number
    sigmoid inferior mesenteric a. ascending br., descending br. sigmoid colon sigmoid aa. are 2-3 in number; they anastomose with the left colic a. to help form the marginal a.
    splenic celiac trunk dorsal pancreatic a., pancreatic brs., pancreatica magna a., caudal pancreatic a., short gastric aa., left gastro-omental a., splenic brs. pancreas, spleen, greater curvature of the stomach splenic a. courses through the substance of the pancreas near its superior border; splenic artery is very tortuous
    subcostal descending thoracic aorta spinal br., collateral br., lateral cutaneous br. vertebrae, spinal cord; muscles, skin & fascia of the upper abdominal wall subcostal a. is equivalent to a posterior intercostal a., but is named subcostal because it courses inferior to the 12th rib
    superficial epigastric femoral a. cutaneous brs. superficial fascia and skin of the lower abdominal wall superficial epigastric a. is one of three superficial arteries that arise from the femoral a. (see also: superficial circumflex iliac a. and superficial external pudendal a.)
    superior mesenteric abdominal aorta at the level of the lower 1/3 of the L1 vertebral body inferior pancreaticoduodenal a., middle colic a., jejunal a., ileal a., right colic a., ileocolic a. inferior part of the head of the pancreas, distal duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, appendix, ascending colon, transverse colon superior mesenteric a. supplies the midgut derivatives; brs. of the superior mesenteric a. participate in formation of the marginal artery
    superior pancreatic splenic a. no named branches superior part of the body of the pancreas superior pancreatic aa. are multiple small brs. arising from the splenic a.
    superior rectal inferior mesenteric a. two unnamed branches superior part of the rectum superior rectal a. is the continuation of the inferior mesenteric a. after the sigmoid brs. are given off; it anastomoses with the middle rectal a. and the inferior rectal a.
    superior suprarenal inferior phrenic a. multiple small aa. superior aspect of the suprarenal gland superior suprarenal aa. are numerous small vessels that enter the suprarenal gland independently
    supraduodenal gastroduodenal a. no named branches superior portion of the 1st part of the duodenum supraduodenal a. supplies branches to both the anterior and posterior surfaces of the duodenum
    suprarenal, inferior renal a. numerous unnamed branches inferior aspect of the suprarenal gland inferior suprarenal a. may anastomose with the superior suprarenal a.
    suprarenal, middle abdominal aorta numerous unnamed branches medial side of the suprarenal gland middle suprarenal a. anastomoses with the superior suprarenal a. and the inferior suprarenal a.
    suprarenal, superior inferior phrenic a. multiple small aa. superior aspect of the suprarenal gland superior suprarenal aa. are numerous small vessels that enter the suprarenal gland independently
    trunk, celiac abdominal aorta at the level of the T12-L1 intervertebral disc left gastric a., splenic a., common hepatic a. stomach, lower esophagus, liver, upper duodenum, pancreas, spleen celiac trunk supplies the foregut derivatives
    umbilical internal iliac a., anterior division superior vesical aa., a. of the ductus deferens superior part of the bladder; ductus deferens distal to the branches described at left, the lumen of the umbilical a. becomes obliterated after birth and the remnant of the vessel becomes the medial umbilical ligament
    vesical, superior umbilical a. no named branches superior aspect of the bladder superior vesical aa.arise from the umbilical a. proximal to where its lumen becomes obliterated


    The material presented in these tables is contained in the book:
    MedCharts Anatomy by Thomas R. Gest & Jaye Schlesinger
    Published by ILOC, Inc., New York
    Copyright © 1995, unauthorized use prohibited.
    The excellent editorial assistance of
    Dr. Pat Tank, UAMS
    is gratefully acknowledged.



    Copyright© 2000 The University of Michigan. Unauthorized use prohibited. Home | Help | Feedback | Contact | Credits

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    Medical Gross Anatomy
    Anatomy Tables - Arteries of the Back

    Artery Source Branches Supply to Notes
    anterior radicular they arise as multiple branches of several vessels (vertebral, posterior intercostal, lumbar, and lateral sacral aa.) they accompany the ventral rootlets to reach the spinal cord meninges; spinal cord; spinal nerve; ventral rootlets anterior radicular aa. anastomose with the anterior spinal a.
    anterior spinal contributions received from several arteries (vertebral, posterior intercostal, subcostal, lumbar, lateral sacral aa.) pial arterial plexus meninges; spinal cord; medulla (dorsal motor nucleus of cranial nerve X, nucleus ambiguus, spinal accessory nucleus and hypoglossal nucleus) anterior spinal a. anastomoses with the anterior radicular brs. of the spinal rami of the vertebral, posterior intercostal, subcostal, lumbar and lateral sacral aa.
    axillary subclavian a. (axillary a. is the continuation of the subclavian lateral to the 1st rib) 1st part: superior thoracic a.; 2nd part: thoracoacromial a., lateral thoracic a.; 3rd part: anterior humeral circumflex a., posterior humeral circumflex a., subscapular a. pectoral region, shoulder region and upper limb pectoralis minor m. crosses anterior to the axillary artery and is used to delineate the 3 parts mentioned at left
    cervical, ascending inferior thyroid a. unnamed muscular branches deep muscles of the neck ascending cervical a. ascends on the anterior surface of the anterior scalene m. beside the phrenic n.
    cervical, deep costocervical trunk unnamed muscular branches deep muscles of the posterior neck deep cervical a. anastomoses with the occipital a. near the occipital bone
    cervical, transverse thyrocervical trunk unnamed muscular branches, possibly the dorsal scapular a. trapezius muscle and surrounding tissues transverse cervical a. gives rise to the dorsal scapular a. ~30% of the time
    costocervical trunk subclavian a., 2nd part deep cervical a., highest intercostal a. deep muscles of the posterior neck; posterior ends of the first 2 intercostal spaces costocervical trunk is located between the anterior scalene m. and the middle scalene m.; it arches posteriorly over the cervical parietal pleura
    deep cervical costocervical trunk unnamed muscular branches deep muscles of the posterior neck deep cervical a. anastomoses with the occipital a. near the occipital bone
    dorsal scapular subclavian a., 3rd part unnamed muscular branches levator scapulae m., rhomboideus major m., rhomboideus minor m. dorsal scapular a. anastomoses with the suprascapular a. and the subscapular a. to form the scapular anastomosis; dorsal scapular a is a branch of the transverse cervical a. in ~30% of cases
    great anterior radicular the spinal br. of the lower posterior intercostal a., subcostal a., or upper lumbar a., usually on left no named branches lower spinal cord great anterior radicular a. anastomoses with the anterior spinal a. at lower thoracic or upper lumbar spinal cord levels
    intercostal, posterior highest intercostal (upper 2 intercostal spaces), descending thoracic aorta (3rd-11th intercostal spaces) posterior br., spinal br., anterior br., collateral br., lateral cutaneous br. intercostal muscles, spinal cord and vertebral column, deep back muscles, skin and superficial fascia overlying the intercostal spaces posterior intercostal aa. supply the lateral and posterior portions of the intercostal space; anterior intercostal aa. supply the anterior portions of the intercostal spaces
    lateral sacral internal iliac a., posterior division spinal brs. sacrum, sacral nerve rootlets, meninges, adjacent muscles there are usually 2 lateral sacral aa. on each side, a superior one and an inferior one
    lumbar abdominal aorta anterior br., posterior br., spinal br. psoas major m., psoas minor m., quadratus lumborum m., spinal cord and vertebral column, deep back muscles the 4 lumbar arteries on each side arise from the posterior surface of the aorta at the level of vertebrae L1-L4; they course posterior to the psoas major m.
    median sacral abdominal aorta 5th lumbar aa. sacrum median sacral a. appears to be the continuation of the abdominal aorta in the median plane, although it is much smaller in size
    posterior radicular they arise as multiple branches of several vessels (vertebral, posterior intercostal, lumbar, and lateral sacral aa.) no named branches meninges; spinal cord; spinal nerve; dorsal rootlets posterior radicular aa. accompany the dorsal rootlets; they anastomose with the posterior spinal aa.
    posterior spinal contributions received from several arteries (posterior inferior cerebellar, vertebral, posterior intercostal, subcostal, lumbar, lateral sacral aa.) pial arterial plexus spinal cord, especially the dorsal columns; medulla (nucleus cuneatus and nucleus gracilis) paired; posterior spinal aa. anastomose with the posterior radicular brs. of the spinal rami of the vertebral, posterior intercostal, subcostal, lumbar and lateral sacral aa.
    radicular, anterior they arise as multiple branches of several vessels (vertebral, posterior intercostal, lumbar, and lateral sacral aa.) they accompany the ventral rootlets to reach the spinal cord meninges; spinal cord; spinal nerve; ventral rootlets anterior radicular aa. anastomose with the anterior spinal a.
    radicular, great anterior the spinal br. of the lower posterior intercostal a., subcostal a., or upper lumbar a., usually on left no named branches lower spinal cord great anterior radicular a. anastomoses with the anterior spinal a. at lower thoracic or upper lumbar spinal cord levels
    radicular, posterior they arise as multiple branches of several vessels (vertebral, posterior intercostal, lumbar, and lateral sacral aa.) no named branches meninges; spinal cord; spinal nerve; dorsal rootlets posterior radicular aa. accompany the dorsal rootlets; they anastomose with the posterior spinal aa.
    sacral, lateral internal iliac a., posterior division spinal brs. sacrum, sacral nerve rootlets, meninges, adjacent muscles there are usually 2 lateral sacral aa. on each side, a superior one and an inferior one
    sacral, median abdominal aorta 5th lumbar aa. sacrum median sacral a. appears to be the continuation of the abdominal aorta in the median plane, although it is much smaller in size
    scapular, circumflex subscapular a. unnamed muscular branches teres major m., teres minor m., infraspinatus m. circumflex scapular a. anastomoses with the suprascapular a. and the dorsal scapular a. to form the scapular anastomosis
    scapular, dorsal subclavian a., 3rd part unnamed muscular branches levator scapulae m., rhomboideus major m., rhomboideus minor m. dorsal scapular a. anastomoses with the suprascapular a. and the subscapular a. to form the scapular anastomosis; dorsal scapular a is a branch of the transverse cervical a. in ~30% of cases
    spinal, anterior contributions received from several arteries (vertebral, posterior intercostal, subcostal, lumbar, lateral sacral aa.) pial arterial plexus meninges; spinal cord; medulla (dorsal motor nucleus of cranial nerve X, nucleus ambiguus, spinal accessory nucleus and hypoglossal nucleus) the anterior spinal a. anastomoses with the anterior radicular brs. of the spinal rami of the vertebral, posterior intercostal, subcostal, lumbar and lateral sacral aa.
    spinal, posterior contributions received from several arteries (posterior inferior cerebellar, vertebral, posterior intercostal, subcostal, lumbar, lateral sacral aa.) pial arterial plexus spinal cord, especially the dorsal columns; medulla (nucleus cuneatus and nucleus gracilis) paired; posterior spinal aa. anastomose with the posterior radicular brs. of the spinal rami of the vertebral, posterior intercostal, subcostal, lumbar and lateral sacral aa.
    thoracodorsal subscapular a. unnamed muscular branches latissimus dorsi m. thoracodorsal a. accompanies the thoracodorsal n.
    transverse cervical thyrocervical trunk unnamed muscular branches, possibly the dorsal scapular a. trapezius muscle and surrounding tissues transverse cervical a. gives rise to the dorsal scapular a. ~30% of the time
    trunk, costocervical subclavian a., 2nd part deep cervical a., highest intercostal a. deep muscles of the posterior neck; posterior ends of the first 2 intercostal spaces costocervical trunk is located between the anterior scalene m. and the middle scalene m.; it arches posteriorly over the cervical parietal pleura
    trunk, thyrocervical subclavian a., 1st part inferior thyroid a., transverse cervical a., suprascapular a. lower neck, posterior shoulder, thyroid gland thyrocervical trunk does not give rise to the ascending cervical a.- it is a branch of the inferior thyroid a.
    vertebral subclavian a.(1st part) spinal brs., muscular brs., anterior spinal a., posterior inferior cerebellar a., medullary brs., meningeal brs., basilar a. deep neck, cervical spinal cord, spinal cord; medulla (dorsal motor nucleus of cranial nerve X, nucleus ambiguus, spinal accessory nucleus and hypoglossal nucleus) vertebral a. anastomoses with the internal carotid a. in the cerebral arterial circle (of Willis); it courses through the transverse foramina of vertebrae C1-C6

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    Default thanx

    its really very helpful....thanx a lot

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    It's very useful for me. Thanks for sharing the information.
    Astermedcity

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    Hi just make a search in google with this term ==> anatomy question book pdf
    the first result is a pdf file with 132 pages, I m new here so I cannot share links hope it helps you

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